Bio ch 26 terms 1

Bio ch 26 terms 1 - independently in two species....

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Monophyletic (mon´-o-fi-let´-ik) Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and all its descendants. A monophyletic taxon is equivalent to a clade. Paraphyletic (par´-uh-fi-let´-ik) Pertaining to a group of taxa that consists of a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its descendants. Polyphyletic (pol´-e-fi-let´-ik) Pertaining to a group of taxa derived from two or more different ancestors. shared ancestral character A character, shared by members of a particular clade, that originated in an ancestor that is not a member of that clade. shared derived character An evolutionary novelty that is unique to a particular clade. Analogy (an-al´-uh-je) Similarity between two species that is due to convergent evolution rather than to descent from a common ancestor with the same trait. Homoplasy (ho´-muh-play´-ze) Similar (analogous) structure or molecular sequence that has evolved
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Unformatted text preview: independently in two species. orthologous genes Homologous genes that are found in different species because of speciation. paralogous genes Homologous genes that are found in the same genome as a result of gene duplication. Binomial The two-part latinized name of a species, consisting of the genus and specific epithet. PhyloCode System of classification of organisms based on evolutionary relationships: Only groups that include a common ancestor and all of its descendents are named. phylogenetic bracketing An approach in which features shared by two groups of organisms are predicted (by parsimony) to be present in their common ancestor and all of its descendants. Polytomy (puh-lit-uh-me) In a phylogenetic tree, a branch point from which more than two descendant taxa emerge. A polytomy indicates that the evolutionary relationships among the descendant taxa are not yet clear....
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