Chapter 2- The Levels of Analysis &amp;__ System-Level Arguments-1

# Chapter 2- The Levels of Analysis &__ System-Level Arguments-1

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Mark R. Brawley Chapter 2: The Levels of Analysis – System-Level Arguments System Level Theories and the Concept of Power Jeffery Hart: power over other actors, power over resources, and power over events and outcomes (this the is most important as it encompasses the other two as well as it is general enough to include both cases of coercion and cooperation). Robert Dahl: control over actions (getting an actor to do what he/she otherwise wouldn’t do; most widely used definition but is limited in that it only pertains to coercion), control over the agenda (what issues are debated, will/will not be taken, and when), and control over preferences (influencing other actors’ desires) Ray Cline: mathematically with a formula which included both tangibles and intangibles, Critical Mass of Population and Territory (C), Economic Capabilities (E), and Military Power (M), the Country’s Strategy (S) and Will to use Power (W). P p = (C+E+M) x (S+W) All these definitions fail in that we can only recognize power (or, in the case of Cline, to assign values to variables) after it’s been used Power and Structure Structural Realists often look at the distribution of power to create theories on how states will behave. When realists talk of the system-level, they define structure in terms of distribution of capabilities, or the number of major powers. poles in the system. o Unipolarity is a system with one major power. According to realists, a single controlling power would eliminate all rivals. While we have never seen this system before, we can argue the existence of hegemony (where one state has greater capabilities than the others, and while they may not be able to take complete control, they can influence decisions). o Bipolarity is a system with two poles, two strong states, or two strong alliances. Examples: the Triple Entente (France, Russia, and Britain) and the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy) prior to WWI; the United States and Soviet Union after WWII (both also became leaders of rival alliances NATO and the Warsaw Pact)

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## This note was uploaded on 04/28/2011 for the course POLI 243 taught by Professor Markbrawley during the Spring '09 term at McGill.

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Chapter 2- The Levels of Analysis &__ System-Level Arguments-1

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