France - France Population of 60 million, landmasss the...

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France - Population of 60 million, landmasss the size of Texas o Largely considered a “has-been” empire o Toqueville analyzed Britsh, French and American politics. Believed while the first two avoided centralizing power, French and most of Europe fell victim to it and serve as the most “normal path” to development. - Why did modern states first emerge in Western Europe? A: Fedualism o Barbarians destroyed all major institutions of the Roman Empire except the Catholic Church. This resulted in Europe being characterixiefd by political division and religious unity o 800: Charlemagne conquers most of Europe (Holy Roman Empire) but it falls after his death as his scuess was based upon his coronation by the pope. Proved you need political and religious power to succeed in these times. o 1300/1400s: Hundred Years War between English and French. English were united with King and Nobles while French suffered social divide. Ended in 1431 by Jean D’Arc. Resulted in Charles VII (1439) establishing a permanent standing army but exempts aristocrats from paying the royal taxes. (Note later for French Revolution) o Deprived of religious authority, Kings ordered charters for cities, universities and other comparative advantages. - England’s aristocrats and Monarchy both shared power, mainland Europe saw Absolutism o Def: Form of rule where the Monarch claims a monopoly of political authority over a delimited territory. Often centralizes all aspects of government to the King while maintaining the aristocrats wealth. See King Louis XIV - Insitutions, Interests and Identity o Estates General: Founded in 1302, comprised of Nobility, Clergy and remaining Third Estate of commoners. Offered Feudal representation
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o 1500’s: Political and religious struggle due to conversion of some Southern nobility to Protestanism. Comprise of 1589 saved the Monarchy: Protestant pretender to the throne Henri IV converts to protestanism while also introducing religious tolerance (Edict of Nantes 1589) o 17 th century consolidation of absolutist monarchy through the four following: Sully: Secured an independent financial base for the monarchy. Indirect forms of taxation, sale of public offices netted the monarchy short term windfalls and rendered Estates General absolete (1614). Farmed out tax collection to third parties – resulted in loss of potential revenue, tax inequities, angry population Cardinal Richelieu:
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France - France Population of 60 million, landmasss the...

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