bio 106 exam 4 study guide

bio 106 exam 4 study guide - Cell types: Parenchyma: thin,...

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Unformatted text preview: Cell types: Parenchyma: thin, non-lignified, alive at maturity, totipotent Functions: 1. Gas exchange and photosynthesis in leaves 2. Starch storage in fruit 3. Wound healing 4. Transport of sugar and amino acids in phloem Collenchyma: unevenly thickened, non-lignified, elongated, alive at maturity Functions: 1. Supporting young elongating organs (ie. stems, leaves, stalks) 2. Strength and protection bordering veins Sclerenchyma: primary and lignified secondary walls, occur singly, in small clusters, or as continuous masses, often dead at maturity Types: 1. Fibers 2. Sclereids 3. Tracheids, vessels Functions: 1. Strength and support (fibers) 2. Mechanical protection (ie. seed coats and nut shells) 3. Tracheids and vessels Plant tissues: Dermal Tissue: outer layer, one cell thick Specialized cells (mostly parenchyma): 1. Epidermal 2. Guard cells: found around stomata on underside of leaf 3. Trichomes: (simple, glandular, branched) protect against herbivores, minimize water loss, protect against UV radiation, reduce internal temperature, secretion Functions: 1. Protects 2. Minimizes water loss Vascular tissue: makes up veins Two Types: 1. Xylem (sclerenchyma cells) 2. Phloem (parenchyma cells) Ground tissue: makes up the bulk of the plant body, mostly parenchyma with some collenchyma and sclerenchyma for support Functions: 1. Photosynthesis 2. Storage Organs: Angiosperms Monocots and Eudicots Monocots: Fibrous roots Veins scattered in stems Parallel veins Herbaceous Eudicots: Tap roots Veins form rings Net-like veins Herbaceous or woody Roots: Four zones: 1. Zone of maturation 2. Zone of elongation 3. Zone of division 4. Root cap Specialized roots: 1. Prop roots- support 2. Aerial roots- obtain water from air (orchids) 3. Pneumatophores- take in oxygen for plants in swampy areas 4. Storage roots 5. Buttress roots- support Stems: Functions: 1. Support 2. Conduction of water and minerals from roots to leaves 3. Conduction of food from leaves to sites of use Shoot System: 1. Stem 2. Node 3. Internode (see diagram) Leaves: Components: 1. Blade 2. Pet iole Types of leaves: 1. Compound leaves (divided into leaflets): a. Pinnately compound b. PALMately compound 2. Doubly compound 3. Needle-like How leaves are attached to stem: 1. Alternate- one leaf per node1....
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2011 for the course BIOL 106 taught by Professor Allisonmiller during the Spring '11 term at Saint Louis.

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bio 106 exam 4 study guide - Cell types: Parenchyma: thin,...

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