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Unformatted text preview: T ransportation Oil: 39% of US energy consumption is petroleum • 1.6% of petroleum is used to create electricity • 2/3 rd of the US oil consumption is used for transportation • a significant amount of oil is also used for industry • the US uses 7.5 billion barrels of oil per year, there are 55 gallons of oil in one barrel CAFÉ standards and fuel efficiency: • automobile fuel efficiency rose after the oil shocks of the 1970s but has stagnated since then. There was no fuel efficiency improvement in 30 years • CAFÉ = corporate average fuel economy • Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration sets CAFÉ standards for motor vehicles • 1984 standards o 27.5 mpg for passenger cars; 20.7 mpg for light trucks, suvs, and minivans with 22.2 mpg by 2007 these have never been reached • the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act o raised all vehicles standards to 35 mpg by 2020 we are at 22 right now • Obama’s new fuel standards o 40% increase in fuel efficiency in cars and light t rucks by 2016 to 35 mpg this would cut oil consumption by 1.2 billion barrels form 2012 to 2016 o new regulations are expected to raise the average cost of a vehicle by 1100 dollars but the better mileage of the car would save you 3000 over the vehicle life Conventional Gas Powered Cars: • gas o gasoline powered engines get by far the worst gas mileage and use the most energy compared to any other differently powered engines • diesel o by using higher compression rations and higher combustion temperatures diesels operate more efficiently than gasoline engines o better fuel economy o a gallon of diesel fuel contains about 10 percent more energy than a gallon of gasoline modern diesels achieve roughly 50 percent higher fuel economy than their gasoline counterparts o diesel vehicles account for nearly half of all new vehicle sales in Europe and a small but growing market share in the US there are so few diesels in the US because they are known as being dirty and loud, even though these perceptions are no longer t rue Hybrid Cars (parallel hybrid): • wheels are driven either by petrol engine or electric motor • The Toyota Prius gets 51 highway 48 around the town • Costs around 22000 but there are major cost savings associated with owning the car PHEV: Plug-In Hybrid-Electric Vehicle • Similar to hybrid except you have a bigger battery that you can charge ahead of time using 100% electric power first from the batter then the hybrid engine • 2012 toyota prius o around 100 mpg o 13 miles of ev then only 50 mpg hybrid Battery plus Generator cars: series hybrid • wheels are driven only by an electric motor but has a gas generator to run the electric motor as well, so when the gas has to kick in it doesn’t move the wheels it powers the electric motor which runs the wheels o 2011 Chevy Volt: 230 mpg $40,000 $7500 tax credit factor in huge fuel savings over life of vehicle 40 mile range All Electric Vehicle: •...
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- Fall '10