Exam 3 study guide

Exam 3 study guide - Urbanization Urbanization: the...

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Unformatted text preview: Urbanization Urbanization: the concentration of population into cities • The first urban revolution began with the appearance of cities about 10000 years ago o Preindustrial cities have low buildings; narrow winding streets; and personal social ties • The second urban revolution began about 1750 as the industrial revolution propelled raid urban growth in Europe o Wider streets for more trade o Emphasis on commerce as well as increasing size made city life more impersonal • Great migration o Movement of African Americans from the south to the north to work in factories Increased population in cities Increased diversity in cities The American city: • Up until the 19 th century the US was largely an agrarian country • Growth of cities in the 19 th century was related to o Efficient forms of transportation o Communication technology o Industrialization • Cities grew and populations became more concentrated problems of cities began to arise o Crowding o Transportation o Death rates higher than in rural areas o Developing adequate supplies of water and systems of waste disposal o Crime o major social change because it causes decentralization, relocation of manufacturing, and financial strain Composition of urban populations: • Cities of today are largely populated by o Descendants of rural Americans o Immigrants o African Americans/Hispanics o Rich o Poor Urban sprawl: • Rapid, unplanned, and low-density development at the edge of urban areas o Infrastructure cannot keep up o Consumption of land o Auto-gridlock and pollution • Edge cities o Business centers located some distance from the old downtowns Mostly commercial developments Most major cities contain several edge cities Urban decentralization has increased the plight of the poor • Loss of city jobs to edge cities • Government policies encouraged outward expansion by creating interstate highways and low cost housing • This gave birth to the megalopolis, a city with more than 50,000 people, and a surrounding region containing a # of cities and their suburbs o Megalopolis have large scale effects on the environment due to water supply, waste management, pollution, and consumption Suburbanization and decentralization: • Suburbanization: movement of middle class whites to the suburbs o Suburbanization was grown out of highway construction and the Federal Housing Authority/the Veterans Administration mortgages o Suburbs place strain on city resources and do not provide much financial support for cities • Decentralization: flight of city dwellers and businesses to suburbs o Relocation of manufacturing Many manufacturing companies moved to the suburbs to take advantage of the new, emerging transportation systems and to reduce costs • Financial problems o Loss of tax dollars to the suburbs, deteriorating infrastructure, increasing concentration of poor which resulted in increasing costs for services, and decreased property tax base for cities Housing problems:...
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2010 for the course SOC 201 taught by Professor Reid during the Fall '07 term at Clemson.

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Exam 3 study guide - Urbanization Urbanization: the...

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