Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide

Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide - Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide...

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Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 8: Social Stratification Social stratification: a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. Based on four principles Social stratification is a trait of society, not simply a reflection of individual differences o Our lives are shaped by social stratification Social stratification carries over from generation to generation o Usually there aren’t changes in positions within the social hierarchies Social stratification is universal but variable o What is unequal and how unequal it is varies from society to society Social stratification involves not just inequality but beliefs as well Social mobility: a change in position within the social hierarchy Caste system: social stratification based on ascription or birth, closed system Closed systems vs. open systems: closed systems allow little change in social position, and open systems permit much more social mobility. The class system: social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement Meritocracy: social stratification based on personal merit Class/status consistency: degree of uniformity in a person’s social standing across various dimensions of social inequality Structural social mobility: a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts Ideology: cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of inequality. Ideologies are major reasons that social hierarchies endure Davis-Moore thesis: social stratification has beneficial consequences for the operation of a society Karl Marx and Max Weber: approach social stratification with a social-conflict approach Karl Marx claimed that capitalism places economic production under the ownership of capitalists who exploit the proletarians who sell their labor for wages Max Weber believed that conflict exists between people at various positions on a multidimensional hierarchy of socioeconomic status Capitalists: people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits Proletarians: people who sell their labor for wages Blue-collar occupations: lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor White-collar occupations: higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity Socioeconomic status: a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality Conspicuous consumption: buying and using products because of the statement they make about social position Social stratification involves many dimensions:
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Income: earnings from work and investments are unequal with the richest 2-% of families earning twelve times as much as the poorest 20% of families Wealth: the total value of all assets minus debts wealth is distributed more unequally than income with the richest 20% of families holding 85% of all wealth Power: income and wealth are important sources of power Prestige: work generates not only income but also prestige. White-collar
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2010 for the course SOC 201 taught by Professor Reid during the Fall '07 term at Clemson.

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Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide - Sociology Exam 2 Study Guide...

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