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1988 AP US MC & Answers

1988 AP US MC & Answers - m UNITED STATES HISTORY a...

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Unformatted text preview: m _ UNITED STATES HISTORY a; SECTION I " ‘ Time—-l hour and 15 minutes 100 Questions Directions: Each of the following questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then blacken the corresponding space on the answe: sheet. 1. Which of the following was true of the Continental Congress in its drafting of the Articles of Confedera- tion‘? (A) It was cautious about giving the new govem— ment powers it had just denied Parliament. (B) It gave Congress the exclusive right to issue currency. .‘ (C) It gave the national court system the power to / review both national and state law. (D) It gave Congress control of interstate commerce. (E) It rejected the arguments of men like Samuel Adams and Richard Henry Lee who feared strong governments. OREGON COUNTRY Admitted Is Steve Stole _ 2. The map above shows the United States immedi- ately following the (A) passage of the Northwest Ordinance (B) negotiation of the Adams-Onis Treaty (C) passage of the Missouri Compromise (D) settlement of the Mexican War (E) passage of the Compromise of 1850 3. Which of the following states the principle of is “popular sovereignty. (A) Congress h shall and (B) The settlers l . ry have the sole right to deci whether or not slavery will be permitted there. (C) Individual citizens can decide for themselves whether or not to hold slaves. (D) The American people shall decide where slavery will exist through a national plebiscite. (E) Individual states have the right to reject congressional decisions pertaining to slavery. d 'de where slavery . Of the following. the most threatening problem for the Union from 1861 through l863 was (A) possible British recognition of the Confederacy (B) Spanish intervention in Santo Domingo (C) French objections to the Union blockade (D) British insistence on the abolition of slavery (E) British objections to the Union position on “continuous voyage" . Why did Congressional Reconstruction end in 1877 ? (A) The freed slaves had been successfully inte- grated into Southern society. (B) The treaty ending the Civil War had set such a time limit. (C) Most of the politically active Black people had left the South for Northern cities. (D) The Republican and Democratic parties effected a compromise agreement after the 1876 presidential election. (E) The United States needed the troops stationed in the South to confront the French in Mexico. . Joseph Pulitzer achieved fame and wealth as a (A) radio commentator (B) political cartoonist (C) photographer (D) film producer (E) newspaper publisher 7. During the Great Depression. “Hoovervillec” were (A) government relocation camps for indigent workers (B) model communities established by the Hoover administration (C) shantytowns of unemployed and homeless ‘I. people (D) scup kitchens financed under New Deal legisla- tion (E) work projects established by the Hoover admin- istration to revitalize the economy . Japanese-Americans living on the West Coast of the United States in early I942 were sent to internment camps on the alleged grounds that they (A) were a potential threat to the security of the United States (B) refused to take a loyalty oath (C) wished to return to Japan in great numbers (D) Were instrumental in arranging the attack on Pearl Harbor (E) worked with German and Italian groups to weaken American resolve . Which of the following statements is correct about the riSe of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy to national prominence? (A) He was the first Republican to emphasin the dangers of communism at home and abroad. (B) His careful investigations led to the conviction of hundreds of active subversivee to whom the Truman administration had turned a blind eye. (C) He effectively played on the fears of Americans that communists had infiltrated the State Department and other federal agencies. (D) He used the televised Army-McCarthy hearings to his advantage. (E) He received strong support from President Eisenhower. p to. ll. Which of the following best characterizes the goals of Martin Luther King, in? (A) A peaceful separation of Black people into powerful economic and political groups (B) A peaceful integration of the races in all areas of society (C) Federal compensation to Black people for past political and legal injustices (D) A church-centered Black community removed from the oppression of White people (E) Constant and. if necessary, violent political and social action to achieve long-sought justice In I962. which of the following contributed most directly to a crisis in Soviet-American relations over Cuba? (A) Cuban attacks on the United States. naval base at Guantanamo (B) The failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion (C) Cuban support for leftist guerilla movements in Latin America (D) Cuban withdrawal from the Organization of American States (E) The discovery of Soviet missile sites in Cuba 12. A Maryland master placed the following newspaper advertisement in 1772 after Harry, his slave. had run away: “He has been seen about the Negro Quarters in Patuxent, but is supposed to have removed among his Acquaintances on Potomack; he is also well acquainted with a Negro of Mr. Wall’s named Rachael; a few miles from that Quarter is his Aunt, and he may possibly be harboured thereabouts." Which of the following statements about conditions under slavery is best supported by the passage above? (A) Slaves had no opportunity to develop their own culture and society. (B) Slaves commonly formed settlements of their own away from the plantations. (C) Slaves lived entirely independently of their masters. (D) Slaves frequently associated with free Black people. (E) Slaves maintained social networks among kindred and friends despite forced separa- trons. Bl] [1N ll] lHE NEXT PAGE William L. Clements Library. University of Michigan l3. The rough map above was used by Thomas Jefferson to (A) plot American military strategy during the Revolution . (B) give Lewis and Clark their instructions for exploration of the Mississippi (C) plan a system of frontier fortifications (D) begin planning the division of federal lands into new states (E) organize voluntary militia during the Black Hawk War [10 UN TU lHE NEXT PAGE n 14. 15. I6. 175 The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 was impor- tant because it (A) established the role of the federal government in internal improvements (B) strengthened the ties between the eastern manu- facturing and western agricultural regions (C) made the invention of the steamboat economi- cally viable (D) spurred innovation in the railroad industry (E) was the last major canal project before the Civil War R. In the 1850’s, the South differed from the North in that the South had (A) a better-developed transportation system (B) a better-educated White population (C) less interest in evangelical religion (D) fewer European immigrants (E) more cities The Black Codes passed in a number of southern states after the Civil War were intended to (A) close public schools to the children of former slaves (8) promote the return of former slaves to Africa (C) enable Black citizens to vote in federal elections (D) place limits on the socioeconomic opportunities open to Black people (E) further the integration of southern society Which of the following best accounts for the fact that Slavic immigrants in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries settled principally in midwestem cities like Pittsburgh, Detroit. and Chicago? (A) The immigrants’ inability to speak English was a serious obstacle to securing work on the East Coast. ‘ (B) Housing was better and food cheaper in the newer cities of the Midwest. (C), Midwestern steel, meatpacking, and other mass production industries offered many unskilled jobs. (D) Immigration authorities subsidized rail fares for westward migrants. (E) Ethnic and religious prejudice was less wide- spread in the Midwest than in eastern cities. 18. The primary function of the war boards during the first World War was to (A) increase cooperation among business. labor, and government (8) enc0urage the breakup of monopolies (C) nationalize the banking industry ", (D) limit the influence of social scientists on govern- ' ment policy (E) minimize the tax burden on the lower classes 19. For American farming. the years 1921 to 1929 were a period of (A) increase in the size of the farm population (B) rapid inflation in the price of farmland (C) low prices for agricultural products (D) increased government subsidization (E) increase in the number of small family-owned farms UNEMPLOYMENT l929-l942 20. Which of the following was most responsible for the change shown between [938 and 1942 on the chart above? - (A) The illness and death of unemployed workers (B) A redefinition of unemployment by the United States Census Bureau (C) Legislation of the second New Deal (D) Industrial mobilization related to the Second World War (E) A global economic boom following the Great Depression iii] UN TU lHE NEXI PAGE 21. 22. 23. 24. American participation in the Second World War had which of the following major effects on the home front? (A) A movement of women into factory work (B) The breakdown 01.55913"! segregation in the South ' 1; H ' (C) The growth of isolationism in the Midwest (D) The introduction of a system of national health ‘ insurance (E) A decline in farm income The announced purpose of the Marshall Plan was to (A) stabilize world currencies (B) promote advanced technology for use in the military defense of Western Europe (C) reduce the dependence of the European economy on overseas empires (D) maintain the United States position as the world‘s leading creditor nation (E) aid the economic recovery of war-tom Europe The major purpose of England‘s mercantilist policy was to (A) protect the infant industries of England’s young colonies (B) increase England‘s prosperity (C) discourage other European powers from colo- nizing North America (D) reduce the need for an overseas empire (E) open the Atlantic to free trade Colonial cities functioned primarily as (A) mercantile centers for collecting agricultural goods and distributing imported manufac- tured goods (B) places where most poor immigrants settled and worked as independent artisans (C) centers where large scale financial and banking operations were conducted (D) places to which wage earners commuted from numerous surrounding communities (E) centers of light manufacturing 25. The argument between Great Britain and its Amer- 26. 27. 28. ican colonies during the 1760's and 1770‘s over “Virtual representation" concerned (A) patterns of legislative apportionment in the colonialassemblies (B) Parliament‘s ability to reflect colonial interests (0) the lack of colonial participation in negotiating the Treaty of Paris (D) the increasing use of juryless admiralty courts in ‘_ the colonies (E) the representation of“Free men of color" in colonial assemblies During the War for Independence. the principal reason the American government sought diplomatic recognition from foreign powers was to (A) rally all the states behind a common cause (B) convince the British of the justice of the Amer- ican cause (C) make it easier to levy taxes on the citizens of the several states (D) facilitate the purchase of arms and borrowing of money from other nations (E) allow Von Steuben. Lafayette. and other Europeans to join the American army The dramatic increase in the South‘s slave labor force between 1810 and 1860 was due to (A) an increase in the African slave trade (B) the importation of slaves from the West Indies (C) an increase in the severity of fugitive slave laws (D) the acquisition of Louisiana (E) the natural population increase of American- born slaves In addition to the cotton gin. Eli Whitney‘s major contribution to American technology was his (A) introduction of interchangeable parts (B) development of the first practical locomotive (C) invention of the mechanical reaper (D) installation of the first textile mill (E) development of steam power [ill UN it] THE NEXT PAGE Courtesy. Museum of Fine Arts. Boston. Gift of Maxim Karolik for the proposed M. + M. Karolik Collection of American Watercolors, Drawings and Prints. 29. The drawing above has been cited as evidence of the nineteenth-century middle-class view of the (A) home as a refuge from the world rather than as a productive unit (B) declining influence of women in the family structure (C) economic value of children to families (D) importance of religious education (E) widening role of women in society [If] [EN ll] THE NEXT All H 30. The call for the “immediate and uncompensated 3!. 32. 33. 34. emancipation of the slaves" is associated with the position of (A) the Free Soil party (B) the evangelical churches in both the North and the South (C) Abraham Lincoln in his debate with Stephen A. Douglas at Freepon, Illinois (D) John Quincy Adams in his demands for repeal of the “gag rule" (E) William Lloyd Garrison in The Liberator All of the following are true of railroad expansion in the late nineteenth century EXCEPT that it (A) opened new territories tocommercial agricul- ture (B) accelerated the growth of some older cities and created new ones (C) was financed by private corporations without government assistance (D) led to new managerial forms and techniques (E) was often capitalized beyond what was needed During Woodrow Wilson's administration. the‘ federal government attempted to counteract the economic influence of big business by (A) eliminating the gold standard (B) increasing tariff rates (C) centralizing economic planning (D) applying the provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment to corporations (E) establishing the Federal Trade Commission Of the following, the most important cause of the Great Depression was (A) soaring energy costs (B) serious dislocations in international trade (C) European abandonment of the gold standard (D) confiscatory social security taxes (E) excessive government spending Which of the following statements about the emer- gence of rock and roll music as a part of 1950‘s popular culture in the United States is true? (A) It relied heavily on Black musical traditions. (B) It adapted many of the big band tunes of the 1940’s. (C) It was a spin-off from British pOpular music of the time. (D) [t was the first popular music broadcast nation- ally on radio. (E) It had little appeal in the South and West. 12 iii: 35. The “Great Awakening" refers to the 36. 37. 38. (At)- growth of European awareness of the New World in the [500's (B) impact of the Enlightenment on colonial thought in the early 1700's (C) wave of religious revivals that swept the i7 colonies in the 1740’s (D) beginning of the colonial movement toward independence from Great Britain (E) growth of technology that contributed to increased industrialization in the early 1800’s Which of the following moved in greatest numbers into Appalachia as the American Indians of the region were defeated? (A) Immigrants from Sweden (B) Slaveholders, indentured servants. and slaves from coastal plantations (C) Puritans from New England (D) Scotch-Irish, German, and English immigrants (E) White immigrants from the West Indies Which of the following describes “the Lode system" in early nineteenth-century New England? (A) A plan to promote and expand textile manufac- turing activities (8) An agreement among the New England states to secede and form a New England confed- eracy (C) A reform eliminating property-holding as a qualification for voting (D) A strategy to defend New England during the War of 18l2 (E) A congressional reapportionment plan during the 1820's The theme of individualism is most evident in the writings of (A) Jonathan Edwards (B) Ralph Waldo Emerson (C) George Fitzhugh (D) Washington Irving (E) Nathaniel Hawthorne [SOON TO ME NEH Phil (I 39. Which of the following was true of the American 4|. labor movement in the late nineteenth century? (A) It was controlled by immigrant socialists and anarchists. (B) It was confined to factory workers. (C) It was protected from employer harassment by federal law and policy. (D) It was allied with the Democratic party. (E) It was involved in a number of violent strikes. IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. 1870-1900 (BY AREA OF ORIGIN) ---------- Northern and Western Europe --—-Southern and Eastern Europe —Asia, Africa, and the Americas é ‘é‘é A W 1:: i: 53 ch 3 O .: ._. v In ._. i: E .2.” E E _. 1870 1875 1880 1885 1890 1895 1900 Year of Arrival Which of the following best accounts for the curve 'on the graph above depicting immigration to the United States from Asia. Africa,and the Americas between 1882 and I900 ? (A) Rapid expansion of the British Empire into the Scuthern Hemisphere (B) Restrictive congressional legislation (C) Immigration to less-settled areas of the world (D) Improved worldwide economic conditions ' (E) Reduction ofpotential immigrant populations by widespread epidemics As a result of the Spanish-American War. Spain relinquished to the United States control of Puerto Rico. Cuba. and which of the following? (A) Alaska (B) Hawaii (C) The Panama Canal Zone (D) Bermuda (E) The Philippines 13 42. Charles Lindbergh became a national hero for all of the following reasons EXCEPT: (A) He was seen as a modest, handsome daredevil. (B) He made a solo flight across the Atlantic. (C) He advocated American leadership in world affairs. . (D) He embodied American traditional values in the new industrialized Society. (E) His success incorporated elements of technology and individualism. 43. During the decade of the 1960’s. young people, Black people, American Indians, Hispanic Ameri- cans. and women were among the groups protesting various aspects of American society. All of the following were protested against by one or more of these groups EXCEPT the (A) excessive cost of the social security system (B) United States involvement in the Vietnam War (C) marginal economic status of non-Whites (D) exclusion of women from the mainstream of American life (E) increasing bureaucratization and impersonality of American institutions . Which of the following most appropriately charac- terizes the violence exhibited in such episodes as Bacon’s Rebellion, the Boston Tea Party, Shays’ Rebellion, and the Whiskey Rebellion? (A) Most violence occurred in urban areas. (B) Most violence produced no deaths. (C) The level of violence subsided after the Amer- ican Revolution. (D) Violence was directed at "outsiders” or repre- sentatives of distant authority. (E) Most violence occurred because of the interven- tion of foreign powers in American internal affairs. . Which of the following most accurately describes the attitude of the Founding Fathers toward political parties? (A) Parties are vehicles of ambition and selfish interest that threaten the existence of repub- lican government. (B) Parties are engines of democracy that provide citizens with a voice in government. (C) Parties are necessary evils in any republic. _ (D) In a large republic. parties are the best means of creating effective coalitions of interest groups. (E) A two-party system is essential to a stable republic. Ill] 0N Til THE NEXT PAGE 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. Which of the following statements about the Dred Scott decision is correct? (A) It recognized the power of Congress to prohibit slavery in‘the territories, but refused on tech- nical grounds to free Scott. (B) [t stated that Black people were not citizens of the United States. (C) It upheld the constitutionality of the Missouri Compromise. (D) It upheld the principle of popular sovereignty. (E) It freed Scott, but not other slaves in circum- stances similar to Scott's. Which of the following was a consequence of the shift to sharecropping and the crop lien system in the late nineteenth-century South? (A) A major redistribution of land ownership (B) A diversification of crops (C) A cycle of debt and depression for Southern tenant ...
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