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Unformatted text preview: I negate, According to the Oxford English Dictionary, ought is used to indicate duty or correctness. Note that duties are not necessarily moral considerations. Thus my value is government obligations because the resolution questions whether or not something achieves foreign policy objectives. The only possible actor that can possible have foreign policy objectives with international credibility are government actors. In any notion of governments obligations, we have to recognize the reality of power politics in the international sphere. Insofar as the international realm is anarchic and there is no actor capable of dispensing moral judgments, each state is left to their own devices. This demands that governments acknowledge the inevitability of power politics and act within that framework in order to protect their citizens. Thayer 1 writes in 2004: < In chapter 2, I explain how evolutionary theory contributes to the realist theory of international relations and to rational choice analysis. First , realism, like the Darwinian view of the natural world, submits that international relations is a competitive and dangerous realm, where statesmen must strive to protect the interests of their state before the interests of others or international society . Traditional realist arguments rest principally on one of two discrete ultimate causes, or intellectual foundations of the theory. The first is Reinhold Niebuhrs argument that humans are evil. The second, anchored in the thought of Thomas Hobbes and Hans Morgenthau, is that humans possess an innate animus dominandi - a drive to dominate. From these foundations, Niebuhr and Morgenthau argue that what is true for the individual is also true of the state: because individuals are evil or possess a drive to dominate so too do states because their leaders are individuals who have these motivations . Argue that realists have a much stronger foundation for the realist argument than that used by either Morgenthau or Niebuhr. My intent is to present an alternative ultimate cause of classical realism: evolutionary theory. The use of evolutionary theory allows realism to be scientifically grounded for the first time, because evolution explains egoism . Thus a scientific explanation provides a better foundation for their arguments than either theology or metaphysics. Moreover, evolutionary theory can anchor the branch of realism termed offensive realism and advanced most forcefully by John Mearsheimer. He argues that the anarchy of the international system, the fact that there is no world government, forces leaders of states to strive to maximize their relative power in order to be secure Moral rules are only binding under conditions of reciprocity. While violence may generally be immoral, we accept self-defense because the attacker has disregarded the moral agency of the victim. Similarly, international politics is a self-help world. Because there is no central global authority to create and enforce rules for the behavior of nations,...
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- Spring '10
- US History