The very word - "The very word "cancer"...

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"The very word "cancer" brings a chill to any woman who has undergone a test and is confirmed to be at risk, or actually found to have a tumor or tumors. As long as various aspects of research- from hereditary factors to genetics to new surgical and chemical procedures are found, there are also bound to be some who feel that their "discoveries" provide a quick fix, without proper substantiation." Of all gynecologic malignancies, ovarian cancer continues to have the highest mortality and is the most difficult to diagnose. In the United States female population, ovarian cancer ranks fifth in absolute mortality among cancer related deaths (13,000/yr). In most reported cases, ovarian cancer, when first diagnosed is in stages III or IV in about 60 to 70% of patients which further complicates treatment of the disease (Barber, 3). Early detection in ovarian cancer is hampered by the lack of appropriate tumor markers and clinically, most patients fail to develop significant symptoms until they reach advanced stage disease. The characteristics of ovarian cancer have been studied in primary tumors and in established ovarian tumor cell lines which provide a reproducible source of tumor material. Among the major clinical problems of ovarian cancer, malignant progression, rapid emergence of drug resistance, and associated cross-resistance remain unresolved. Ovarian cancer has a high frequency of metastasis yet generally remains localized within the peritoneal cavity. Tumor development has been associated with aberrant, dysfunctional expression and/or mutation of various genes. This can include oncogene overexpression, amplification or
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mutation, aberrant tumor suppressor expression or mutation. Also, subversion of host antitumor immune responses may play a role in the pathogenesis of cancer (Sharp, 77). Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma was first described by Peham in 1899 as "hypernephroma of the ovary" because of its resemblance to renal cell carcinoma. By 1939, Schiller noted a histologic similarity to mesonephric tubules and classified these tumors as "mesonephromas." In 1944, Saphir and Lackner described two cases of "hypernephroid carcinoma of the ovary" and proposed "clear cell" adenocarcinoma as an alternative term. Clear cell tumors of the ovary are now generally considered to be of mullerian and in the genital tract of mullerian origin. A number of examples of clear cell adenocarcinoma have been reported to arise from the epithelium of an endometriotic cyst (Yoonessi, 289). Occasionally, a renal cell carcinoma metastasizes to the ovary and may be confused with a primary clear cell adenocarcinoma. Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) has been recognized as a distinct histologic entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of ovarian tumors since 1973 and is the most lethal ovarian neoplasm with an overall five year survival of only 34% (Kennedy, 342). Clear cell adenocarcinoma, like most ovarian cancers, originates from the ovarian epithelium which is a single layer of cells found on
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2011 for the course GEN 200 taught by Professor Daimenfleming during the Spring '11 term at University of Phoenix.

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The very word - "The very word "cancer"...

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