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# S.Ch1 - Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics OK I told you...

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OK, I told you that this is a course in communication. Like any language course, you’re going to have to learn to speak the language. Prepare to master a lot of jargon! Datum A single measurement or observation, commonly called a score or a raw score. Data Plural of datum, measurements or observations Data set Collection of measurements or observations Population Sample The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study. A set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study. A parameter is a value that describes a population. (Greek letter: σ , ρ ) A statistic is a value that describes a sample. (English letter: s , r ) Define a population that you might want to study. Random sampling A process for obtaining a sample from a population that requires that every individual in the population has the same chance of being selected for the sample. What procedure would you use to obtain a sample from your population so that it would be representative? One is rarely interested in simply describing a sample, but if that were all that you want to do, you would compute descriptive statistics (procedures used to summarize, organize, and simplify data). It’s much more common for one to be interested in using the sample to make inferences about the population. Inferential statistics consist of techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the populations from which they were sampled. Why would you select a sample? Why not just collect data from the entire population? Could you compute inferential statistics on a population? Why or why not? Ch1 - 1

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S.Ch1 - Chapter 1 Introduction to Statistics OK I told you...

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