biotest3review

biotest3review - Prokaryotes 00:50 Phylogenic groups...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Prokaryotes 00:50 Phylogenic groups Paraphyletic group – most recent common ancestor and some but not all of  descendents  Polyphyletic group – not the common ancestor Monophyletic group – most recent common ancestor and all decendants (aka  clade) Bioremediation Use of bacteria to fix pollution (clean up oil spills / treat waste water) Stromatolites  Sedimentary deposits and precipitated materials held in place by mats  of microorganisms (cyanobacteria) 2.7 Billion years old Cyanobacteria First bacteria to produce oxygen as a byproduct of photosynthesis How do Prokaryotes differ from Eukaryotes? Prokaryotes o Singlecelled o No membrane bound nuclei  (highly condensed double stranded ring of  DNA) o Binary fission o No internal compartmentalization o Simple flagella o Oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis o Chemolithotrophic (converts chemicals from inorganic to organic)
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Euakaryotes o Single or multi cellular o Membrane bound nuclei o Linear chromosomes o Asexual and sexual reproduction  o Internal compartmentalization Present o Complex flagella o Oxygenic photosynthesis Example:  Bacteria that fix nitrogen for plants to use live in nodules on the  roots  of legumes Prokaryotes = oldest form of life (oldest microfossils are  3.5 billion yrs old ) Gram Stain Positive o Purple o Retains stain o Has simple cell wall with much peptidoglycan Negative o Pink o Does not retain stain
Background image of page 2
Has complex cell wall with less peptidoglycan Know names of major groups of Prokaryotes     Euryarchaeota (Archea) archaeal cell walls lack peptidoglycan plasma membranes are made of different kinds of lipids than bacterial plasma  membranes RNA and ribosomal proteins are more like eukaryotes than bacteria.  Mostly anaerobic. Aquificae (Thermophiles) deepest or oldest branch of bacteria oxidizes hydrogen or sulfur.  Bacilli (Gram-Positive Bacteria) Gram-positive bacteria Largely solitary; many form endospores. Responsible for many significant human diseases, including anthrax (Bacillus  anthracis); botulism (Clostridium botulinum); and other common diseases  (staphylococcus, streptococcus) Actinobacteria (Gram–Positive Bacteria) Some gram-positive bacteria form branching filaments and some produce  spores; often mistaken for fungi. Produce many commonly used antibiotics, including streptomycin and  tetracycline.  One of the most common types of soil bacteria; also common in dental  plaque. Streptomyces, Actinomyces. Spirochaetes
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 05/02/2011 for the course BIO 106 taught by Professor Miller/cammilo during the Spring '11 term at Saint Louis.

Page1 / 53

biotest3review - Prokaryotes 00:50 Phylogenic groups...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online