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biotest4review - Plant Form and Function I 11:04 PM Cell...

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Plant Form and Function I 5/1/11 11:04 PM Cell Types ( P retty C ool S tuff) Parenchyma Thin cell walls No Lignin Alive at maturity Most common Totipotent o Retain capacity to divide and develop into a complete plant Form these tissues… o Phloem (vascular), all dermal (guard, trichrome, epidermal), all ground (except support cells) Most diverse functions o In fruits and roots, function in starch and water storage o Function in wound healing o In leaves, function in photosynthesis and gas exchange Have chloroplasts, guard cells o Function in Asexual Reproduction Totipotent nature begets this Form Rhizomes and Stolons o Form the phloem (primarily) Transports amino acids and sugars Collenchyma Unevenly thickened No lignin Typically elongated o Grow rapidly Alive at maturity Part of these tissues o Support in ground Functions o Support for young plant organs that are still elongating i.e. stems, leaf stalks o strengthen and protect in bordering veins Sclerenchyma Thickest
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lignified secondary cell walls (not primary) Occur singly, in small clusters, or continuous masses Often dead at maturity Form these plant tissues… o xylem 3 types o Fibers Function for strength and support Secondary cell walls are thick and contain lignin to achieve this long o Sclereids Function in mechanical protection Grit of pear, seed coats, nut shells Sharp edges cells achieve this Usually occur alone Tracheids, vessels o Parts of xylem o Cells dead at maturity Tissue Types Dermal “skin” outer layer of plant usually one cell layer thick cell types (parenchymal) o epidermal cells cuticle not part of cell, just on top protects and minimizes plant water loss o guard cells function in gas exchange, minimize water loss make up stomata by opening and closing pore gases are stored in bottom of leaf because photosynthesis occurs at the top, so stomata are on the bottom o trichromes
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hair-like structure Functions help reflect sunlight and keep plant cool minimize water loss protect against UV radiation secretion 3 types simple glandular can house be poisons or herbivoric deterrents branched Vascular “circulatory system” contain both xylem and phloem all vascular plants have tracheids o only gametophytes and angiosperms have vessels Ground Everything else Make up bulk of plant body Primary functions Photosynthesis and storage Mostly parenchyma, some collenchyma and sclerenchyma for support Phloem parenchyma 2 parts Sieve tube members o Larger, hollow, contract and release to move solution of amino acids and sugars o No nucleus, chloroplasts, or other organelles Companion cells o Smaller, not hollow, control flow of amino acids and sugars in sieve tube members o Maintain sieve tubes
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o Load and unload sieve tubes o Retains nucleus Connected by plasmodesmata
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Plant Form and Func. II
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