Chapter 3 - Chemical Basis of Life II

Chapter 3 - Chemical Basis of Life II - THE CHEMICAL BASIS...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/30/11 THE CHEMICAL BASIS OF LIFE II: ORGANIC MOLECULES
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4/30/11 Organic Chemistry Organic molecules contain carbon Abundant in living organisms Macromolecules are large, complex organic molecules u Carbon has 4 electrons in its outer shell u Needs 4 more electrons to fill the shell u It can make up to 4 bonds Usually single or double bonds u Carbon can form nonpolar and polar bonds Molecules with nonpolar bonds (like hydrocarbons) are poorly water soluble Molecules with polar bonds are more water soluble Carbon
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4/30/11 Functional Groups Groups of atoms with special chemical features that are functionally important Each type of functional group exhibits the same properties in all molecules in which it occurs
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4/30/11 Isomers Two structures with an identical molecular formula but different structures and characteristics Structural isomers- contain the same atoms but in different bonding relationships Stereoisomers- identical bonding relationships, but the spatial positioning of the atoms differs in the two isomers Geometric isomers- positioning around double bond Enantiomers- mirror image of another molecule
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4/30/11 Four major types of organic molecules and macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic acids
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4/30/11 Macromolecules Macromolecules are often polymers. long molecule built by linking together small, similar subunits Dehydration synthesis removes OH and H during synthesis of a new molecule. Hydrolysis breaks a covalent bond by adding OH and H – hydrolytic cleavage .
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Carbohydrates Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms C n (H 2 O) n Most of the carbon atoms in a carbohydrate are linked to a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group u Carbohydrates are loosely defined as molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio. u Presence of numerous (C-H) bonds that release energy during oxidation makes them well-suited for energy storage. u
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2011 for the course CELL 101 taught by Professor Burdsal during the Fall '08 term at Tulane.

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Chapter 3 - Chemical Basis of Life II - THE CHEMICAL BASIS...

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