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Chapter 4 - General Features of Cells

Chapter 4 - General Features of Cells - GENERAL FEATURES OF...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/30/11 GENERAL FEATURES OF CELLS CHAPTER 4
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4/30/11 Cell theory 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells 2. Cells are the smallest units of living organisms 3. New cells come only from pre-existing cells by cell division
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4/30/11 Microscopy Magnification Ratio between the size of an image produced by a microscope and its actual size Resolution Ability to observe two adjacent objects as distinct from one another Contrast Ø Light microscope l Uses light for illumination l Resolution 0.2 µm Ø Electron microscope l Uses an electron beam l Resolution 2 nm
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4/30/11 Electron microscopes Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Thin slices stained with heavy metals Some electrons are scattered while others pass through to form an image Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Sample coated with heavy metal Beam scans surface to make 3D image
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4/30/11 Prokaryotic cells Simple cell structure Lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus 2 categories- bacteria and archaea Both small Bacteria- abundant, most not harmful Archaea- less common, often found in extreme environments
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4/30/11 Typical bacterial cell Plasma membrane- barrier Cytoplasm- contained inside plasma membrane Nucleoid- region where genetic material found Ribosomes- involved in protein synthesis Ø Many structures are located outside the plasma membrane l Cell wall- support and protection l Glycocalyx- traps water, protection l Appendages- pili (attachment), flagella (locomotion)
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4/30/11 Eukaryotic cells DNA housed inside nucleus Eukaryotic cells exhibit compartmentalization Organelle- sub cellular structure or membrane- bounded compartment with its own unique structure and function Shape, size, and organization of cells vary considerably among different species and even among different cell types of the same species
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4/30/11 The Proteome Determines the Characteristics of a Cell How does a single organism produce different types of cells?
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