Chapters 16 & 17 - Simple and Complex Patterns of Inheritance

Chapters 16 & 17 - Simple and Complex Patterns of Inheritance

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Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/30/11 SIMPLE PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE CHAPTER 16
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4/30/11 Mendel Chose Pea Plants as His Experimental Organism Mendel chose the garden pea ( Pisum sativum) to study the natural laws governing plants hybridization - many hybrids were previously produced The garden pea was advantageous because 1. It existed in several varieties with distinct characteristics 2. Its structure allowed for easy crosses 3. Large number of true-breeding varieties - small and easy to grow short generation time (20 - 30 days from bloom to harvest) 4. Sexual organs enclosed in flower could be manipulated
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4/30/11 Mendel carried out two types of crosses 1. Self-fertilization Pollen and egg are derived from the same plant 2. Cross-fertilization Pollen and egg are derived from different plants
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Mendel Studied Seven Traits That Bred True The morphological characteristics of an organism are termed characters or traits A variety that produces the same trait over and over again is termed a true-breeder The seven traits that Mendel studied are
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4/30/11 Mendel’s experimental design allowed pea plants to self-fertilize for several generations assured pure-breeding traits or true breeding performed crosses between varieties exhibiting alternative character forms permitted hybrid offspring to self-fertilize for several generations
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4/30/11 Hybridization The mating or crossing between two individuals that have different characteristics Purple-flowered plant X white- flowered plant Hybrids The offspring that result from such a mating
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4/30/11 Mendel’s Experiments Mendel did not have a hypothesis to explain the formation of hybrids Rather, he believed that a quantitative analysis of crosses may provide a mathematical relationship He experimented on single –factor crosses resulting in the formation of monohybrids and double factor crosses resulting in the formation of dihybrids.
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4/30/11 Single-factor cross Experimenter follows the variants of only 1 trait P generation True-breeding parents F1 generation Offspring of P cross Monohybrids – if parents differ in 1
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4/30/11 Mendel crossed two variants that differ in only one trait. This is termed a monohybrid cross P Cross F1 generation F2 generation Ratio Tall X dwarf stem All tall 787 tall, 277 dwarf 2.84:1 Round X wrinkled seeds All round 5,474 round, 1,850 wrinkled 2.96:1 Yellow X Green seeds All yellow 6,022 yellow, 2,001 green 3.01:1 Purple X white flowers All purple 705 purple, 224 white 3.15:1 Axial X terminal flowers All axial 651 axial, 207 terminal 3.14:1 Smooth X constricted pods All smooth 882 smooth, 229 constricted 2.95:1 Green X yellow pods All green 428 green, 152 yellow 2.82:1
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3 important ideas 1. Dominant and recessive traits Dominant is displayed trait Recessive trait masked by dominant trait 2. Genes and alleles n Particulate mechanism of inheritance
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2011 for the course CELL 101 taught by Professor Burdsal during the Fall '08 term at Tulane.

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Chapters 16 & 17 - Simple and Complex Patterns of Inheritance

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