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Book Notes: Chapter 1 - The Science of Child Development

Book Notes: Chapter 1 - The Science of Child Development -...

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Chapter 1 – The Science of Child Development I. 1.1 Setting the Stage Historical Views of Children and Childhood o Aristotle – denied the existence of innate knowledge; he believed that children acquire knowledge piece by piece by the senses. o Plato – believed that children are born with innate knowledge of many concrete objects and abstract concepts. o John Locke – children are a tabula rasa . - Parents should instruct, reward, and discipline their children and relax over time . o Jean Jacques Rousseau – Newborns have this innate sense of justice and morality that unfolds over time. - Parents should be responsive and receptive to their kids’ needs rather than discipline. Origins of a New Science – The Push of Child Development o Industrial Revolution - Reformers enacted laws that would limit child labor and put more children in schools. o Charles Darwin - Some individuals are better adapted to an environment, making them more likely to survive and pass on their characteristics to future generations. - Baby biographies – detailed, systematic observation of individual children. (often subjective and conclusions were sometimes reached on minimal basis) o G. Stanley Hall
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- Generated theories of child development - Founded the first scientific journal in English where scientists could publish findings from child-development research - Founded a child-study institute at Clark University - First president of the APA o Society for Research in Child Development - These people discovering the conditions that would promote children’s welfare. o Applied developmental science – uses developmental research to promote healthy development, particularly for vulnerable children and families. II. 1.2 Foundational Theories of Child Development Theories and Hypotheses o Theory – an organized set of ideas that are designed to explain and make predictions about child development. o Hypotheses – testable predictions Biological Perspective o According to the biological perspective, intellectual and personality development, as well as physical and motor development, are rooted in biology o Maturational theory –Arnold Gesell says that child development reflects a specific and pre-arranged scheme or plan within the body.
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