Final Review Exam 1 - Review - Exam 1 Exam 1 50 points o...

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Review - Exam 1 Exam 1 50 points o First half – Short Answer and Identification Short Answer (answer 5 of 9) Look at quizzes Matching (10 questions) 50 points o Second half Multiple Choice (25 question) Chapter 1: The Political Landscape Thomas Hobbes (1588-1697) and John Locke (1632-1704) o Alike Both 17 th Century English theorists Believe there should be a power looking over everyone Proposed Social Contact Theory of government o Different Hobbes – view was very pessimistic Leviathan (1651) – a biblical sea monster; his characterization of an all- powerful government Argued that human’s “state of nature” was one of war; nasty and brutish Without gov, people would live like animals; foraging for food, stealing, and killing when necessary Argued for a Single Ruler, no matter how evil, to guarantee the rights of the weak against the strong Protect weak Locke – took the basic survival of humanity for granted Second Treatise of Civil Government (1689) and Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) Preserving “natural rights” o Denied the divine right of kings to govern o Argued that individuals were born equal and with natural rights that no king had the power to void or take away Argued that the gov’s major responsibility was the preservation of private property Argued limited Executive –small group of people with power Argued rule of law – true justice comes from law Branch that makes laws should be the most important branch Social Contract Theory o Definition – All individuals were free and equal by natural right
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o This freedom required that all men and women give their consent to be governed John Locke, and his view, was most influential in writing the Declaration of Independence o “Pure Locke” – influenced many American colonists, especially Thomas Jefferson (wrote the original draft of Declaration of Independence) Jefferson noted the rights to “life, liberty, and property” as key reasons to separate from England Justified the split from England on the English gov’s violation of the social contract with the American colonists Government o Definition – The formal vehicle through which policies are made and affairs of state are conducted Derived from Greek word meaning “to pilot a ship” – appropriate since we expect governments to guide “ship of state” Functions of Government o Establishing Justice System of laws that citizens must follow Ex. Bill of Rights o Insuring Domestic Tranquility Gov must take extraordinary measures to contain any threats of crisis Ex. 9/11 – gov took extraordinary measures to contain the threat of terrorism from abroad as well as within the US Ex. Local govs have police forces, states have national guard, and federal gov can always call up troops o Providing For the Common Defense Major purpose of gov is to provide for the defense of its citizens
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Final Review Exam 1 - Review - Exam 1 Exam 1 50 points o...

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