com100part2-1

com100part2-1 - Chapter 5 08:25 Any type of spoken(or...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 08:25 Any type of spoken (or written) communication that uses one or more words • Ambiguous communication o A man like him is hard to find o all in all, I cannot say enough good thing about this candidate or recommend her too highly Language • A system for encoding and decoding information o It’s symbols (words) are arbitrary o Language is composed of several interrelated parts which work together to create meanings • Components o Phonemes Sound system of language 26 letters, 44 sounds (forks vs dogs) letter S (at vs ate) letter A (9 sounds) Facts: What do the letters F H K P T (and ) have in common? • They are whispered letters- you do not use your voice (vocal chords) if you are saying these letter sounds correctly o Morphemes Smallest units that have an arbitrary meaning in language “boy” “s” “im”, “in”, “ir”,” un” (something by adding prefix changes meaning of word) o Syntax The rules by which we put words together Example: Cliff likes norm vs norm likes cliff o Semantics The study of meaning Denotative meaning • Socially agreed upon meaning of a word (dictionary) Connotative meaning • Other/secondary meanings someone may have for a word o Pragmatics The patterns or rules people use in specific situations Direct v indirect speech acts • Do you want to go out with me? Not saying directly yes or no could cause confusion and could cause being asked again • Things that can affect language, and dialect o Region Geographic region strongly influences peoples language use (different slang and ways words are pronounced) o Dialect A variation on language based on its vocabulary grammar and pronunciation o Age Can cause different ways of saying things (example, text message short cuts, TTYL, LMFAO, etc) o Education and occupation Jargon Specialized terms that develop in many professions Verbal Communication, Listening and Perception • Leveling/flattening: o The elimination of some details (focus on things that are noteworthy, get rid of things that are important or things they may believe contradict something) • Sharpening: o An emphasis of other details (things we think are important need to stand out) • Assimilation o Making the story more coherent and interesting to the listeners (rumors, etc) • If something is not in writing, don’t expect the exact word for word response, things will be missing and changed, someone can remember something word for word Listening • The active process of assigning meaning to sounds • Average college student spends approx...
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com100part2-1 - Chapter 5 08:25 Any type of spoken(or...

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