20_Lecture_Post - Biothechnology Overview: The DNA Toolbox...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–9. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Biothechnology Overview: The DNA Toolbox Sequencing of the genomes of more than 7,000 species was under way in 2010 DNA sequencing has depended on advances in technology, starting with making recombinant DNA In recombinant DNA , nucleotide sequences from two different sources, often two species, are combined in vitro into the same DNA molecule
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Methods for making recombinant DNA are central to genetic engineering , the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes DNA technology has revolutionized biotechnology , the manipulation of organisms or their genetic components to make useful products An example of DNA technology is the microarray, a measurement of gene expression of thousands of different genes
Background image of page 2
How can this array of spots be used to compare normal and cancerous tissues?
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
DNA Cloning and Its Applications: A Preview To work directly with specific genes, scientists prepare well-defined segments of DNA in identical copies, a process called DNA cloning Most methods for cloning pieces of DNA in the laboratory share general features, such as the use of bacteria and their plasmids Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the bacterial chromosome Cloned genes are useful for making copies of a particular gene and producing a protein product
Background image of page 4
Gene cloning involves using bacteria to make multiple copies of a gene Foreign DNA is inserted into a plasmid, and the recombinant plasmid is inserted into a bacterial cell Reproduction in the bacterial cell results in cloning of the plasmid including the foreign DNA This results in the production of multiple copies of a single gene
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Figure 20.2 Bacterium Bacterial chromosome Plasmid 2 1 3 4 Gene inserted into plasmid Cell containing gene of interest Recombinant DNA (plasmid) Gene of interest Plasmid put into bacterial cell DNA of chromosome (“foreign” DNA) Recombinant bacterium Host cell grown in culture to form a clone of cells containing the “cloned” gene of interest Gene of interest Protein expressed from gene of interest Protein harvested Copies of gene Basic research and various applications Basic research on protein Basic research on gene Gene for pest resistance inserted into plants Gene used to alter bacteria for cleaning up toxic waste Protein dissolves blood clots in heart attack therapy Human growth hormone treats stunted growth
Background image of page 6
Using Restriction Enzymes to Make Recombinant DNA Bacterial restriction enzymes cut DNA molecules at specific DNA sequences called restriction sites A restriction enzyme usually makes many cuts, yielding restriction fragments The most useful restriction enzymes cut DNA in a staggered way, producing fragments with “ sticky ends .” Restriction site for the enzyme EcoRI
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Sticky ends can bond with complementary sticky ends of other fragments DNA ligase is an enzyme that seals the bonds between restriction fragments Recombinant DNA molecule One possible combination
Background image of page 8
Image of page 9
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/30/2011 for the course BIOL 1362 taught by Professor Loeblich during the Spring '08 term at University of Houston.

Page1 / 67

20_Lecture_Post - Biothechnology Overview: The DNA Toolbox...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 9. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online