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22_Lecture_Presentation_post - Descent with Modification: A...

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Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life Overview: Endless Forms Most Beautiful A new era of biology began in 1859 when Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species The Origin of Species focused biologists’ attention on the great diversity of organisms
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Darwin noted that current species are descendants of ancestral species Evolution can be defined by Darwin’s phrase descent with modification Evolution can be viewed as both a pattern and a process How can this beetle survive in the desert, and what is it doing?
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1809 1798 1812 1795 1830 1790 1809 1831 36 1844 1859 1870 Lamarck publishes his hypothesis of evolution. Malthus publishes “Essay on the Principle of Population.” Hutton proposes his principle of gradualism. Charles Darwin is born. Darwin travels around the world on HMS Beagle. The Galápagos Islands Darwin writes his essay on descent with modification. On the Origin of Species is published. While studying species in the Malay Archipelago, Wallace sends Darwin his hypothesis of natural selection. 1858 Cuvier publishes his extensive studies of vertebrate fossils. Lyell publishes Principles of Geology. Figure 22.2
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Scala Naturae and Classification of Species The Greek philosopher Aristotle viewed species as fixed and arranged them on a scala naturae The Old Testament holds that species were individually designed by God and therefore perfect
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Carolus Linnaeus interpreted organismal adaptations as evidence that the Creator had designed each species for a specific purpose Linnaeus was the founder of taxonomy, the branch of biology concerned with classifying organisms He developed the binomial format for naming species (for example, Homo sapiens )
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Ideas About Change over Time The study of fossils helped to lay the groundwork for Darwin’s ideas Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata Sedimentary rock layers (strata) Younger stratum with more recent fossils Older stratum with older fossils
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Paleontology , the study of fossils, was largely developed by French scientist Georges Cuvier Cuvier advocated catastrophism , speculating that each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe Geologists James Hutton and Charles Lyell perceived that changes in Earth’s surface can result from slow continuous actions still operating today Lyell’s principle of uniformitarianism states that the mechanisms of change are constant over time This view strongly influenced Darwin’s thinking
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Lamarck’s Hypothesis of Evolution Lamarck hypothesized that species evolve through use and disuse of body parts and the inheritance of acquired characteristics The mechanisms he proposed are unsupported by evidence
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Darwin’s Research As a boy and into adulthood, Charles Darwin had a consuming interest in nature Darwin first studied medicine (unsuccessfully), and then theology at Cambridge University
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2011 for the course BIOL 1362 taught by Professor Loeblich during the Spring '08 term at University of Houston.

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22_Lecture_Presentation_post - Descent with Modification: A...

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