CHAPTER 23 - THE EVOLUTION OF POPULATIONS Learning objectives Genetic Variation, the Substrate for Natural Selection 1. Explain the statement “It is the population, not the individual that evolves.” 2. Explain how Mendel’s particulate hypothesis of inheritance provided necessary support for Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. 3. Explain how quantitative and discrete characters contribute to variation within a population. 4. Distinguish between average heterozygosity and nucleotide variability . Explain why average heterozygosity tends to be greater than nucleotide variability. 5. Define a cline . Mutation and Sexual Recombination 6. Explain why the majority of point mutations are harmless. 7. Explain why mutation has little quantitative effect on allele frequencies in a large population. 8. Describe the significance of transposons in the generation of genetic variability. 9.
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