Lecture 1_Spr2011_post

Lecture 1_Spr2011_post - BIOL 1362 - INTRODUCTION TO...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOL 1362 - INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE - SPRING 2011 Instructor: Ana I. Medrano, Ph.D. ( aimedrano@uh.edu ) Office : 124 A, Science Building (502) Office Hours : 10am -11:30am Tuesday & Thursday Text: Campbell BIOLOGY, 9 th Edition by Reece et.al., with MasteringBiology Exams and Grading Policies 4 midterm exams (@CASA) and a final exam multiple choice questions - which may include diagrams/pictures some true/false Opportunities for extra credit through MasteringBiology the final exam will be cumulative the lowest score of the first four exams will be dropped (all exams must be taken) cheating during the exam will not be tolerated. the three highest scores of Exams 1-4 are worth 22.22% each, for a total of 66.66% (2/3 of your grade). the final exam is worth 33.33% (1/3 of your grade). UNIT 1 - OVERVIEW This unit is all about DNA What it is made of, what information it stores, how it is passed on, what happens if the information is changed RNA Proteins Traits transcription translation P H E N O T Y P E G E N O T Y P E replication DNA Genes Cell Division Asexual: Mitosis, Fission Sexual reproduction: (genetic variation) Meiosis Offspring (passage of traits: inheritance) Evolution happens as populations interact with their environment fertilization ALL CELLS ARE PROKARYOTIC OR EUKARYOTIC In unicellular organisms, division of one cell reproduces the entire organism Multicellular organisms depend on cell division for Development from a fertilized cell Growth Repair Cell division is an integral part of the cell cycle , the life of a cell from formation to its own division Figure 12.2 (a) Reproduction (b) Growth and development (c) Tissue renewal 20 m 100 m 200 m Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material All the DNA in a cell constitutes the cells genome A genome can consist of a single DNA molecule (common in prokaryotic cells) or a number of DNA molecules (common in eukaryotic cells) DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into chromosomes 20 m Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of chromatin , a complex of DNA and protein that condenses during cell division Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus Somatic cells (non-reproductive cells) have two sets of chromosomes Gametes (reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells In preparation for cell division, DNA is replicated and the chromosomes condense Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids (joined copies of the original chromosome), which separate during cell division The centromere is the narrow waist of the duplicated chromosome, where the two chromatids are most closely attached 0.5 m Centromere Sister chromatids Four events must occur for cell division: Reproductive Signal : to initiate cell division Replication : of DNA Segregation : distribution of the DNA into the two new cells Cytokinesis : separation of the two new cells Figure 12.5-3Figure 12....
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Lecture 1_Spr2011_post - BIOL 1362 - INTRODUCTION TO...

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