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1080ch10 - refertoacts(legalornot)

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Organizational Deviance
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The term “organizational deviance” is typically   used to  refer to acts (legal or not) committed by workers or  employers that violate social  norms  supported by other  employees or the general public and which provoke  negative audience reactions. The term “organizational crime” is used more narrowly to  reference acts by workers or employers that violate  formal  criminal  codes. The text chapter considers both.    
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Students of “organizational crime” may be interested in  corporate   crime AND/OR what is commonly referenced in media and popular  discussion as  organized  crime (ie, gangland and syndicated crime). Definitively, the difference between the two crime types noted  above has to do with the objectives driving the crime: corporate  crime is engaged in pursuit of profit from otherwise legal enterprise  while organized crime is engaged in pursuit of profit from illegal  ventures For all practical intents and purposes, since both pursue objectives  by criminal  means , they are one in the same* Ch. 10 considers both organizational deviance and organizational  crime (but not “organized” crime)
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The term "white collar crime" was coined in 1939 during a  speech given by Edwin Sutherland to the American  Sociological Association. Sutherland defined the term as "crime committed by a  person of respectability and high social status in the course  of his occupation.” He further stated that white collar  criminals were from "the upper, white-collar class, which is  composed of respectable, or at least respected, business  and professional men.”
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Note that the term “white collar crime” (as opposed to “blue collar” or  working class crime) references occupational status: white collar  personnel are relatively respectable, middle to upper class career or  professional persons.  What distinguishes the commission of white collar crime from that of  street and blue collar crime is how an act is executed (ie, the skill,  sophistication, and resources of power, influence or respectability for  avoiding detection, prosecution, and conviction).  Street and blue collar criminals, on the other hand,  lack power,  influence or respectability and are more frequently caught and  subjected to formal sanctioning.
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In his own writings, Edwin Sutherland used the term “white collar  crime” to refer to both: (1) illegal actions carried out by individual employees to benefit  their personal interests (2) illegal actions committed on behalf of businesses and  corporations Today, the term  occupational 
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