1 Intro to A & P copy

1 Intro to A & P copy - INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGY...

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INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGY
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ANATOMY - The study of the COMPONENTS making up the living sytem. These components range from something large like a heart or kidney to cells to molecules making up the cells. PHYSIOLOGY - The study of the FUNCTION of living systems or HOW living systems work.
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HOW DO WE STUDY LIVING SYSTEMS? Historically medieval scientists assumed that living systems were unique and outside of the laws of science. This method was known as Vitalism . Leonardo da Vinci (who also painted on the side) discovered that muscles and bones were the same as pulleys and that the heart was a simple pump. This ushered in the era of the Mechanistic method where living systems were determined by the laws of science .
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THE MECHANISTIC MODEL Reductionism - A mechanistic method of studying living systems which begins at the level of the organ system and explaining that in terms of the organ and then explaining the organ in terms of cells and cells in terms of intracellular parts and finally the explanation stops at the level of molecules . Eg. - Muscle function would ultimately be explained by molecular activities. Whole muscle Cellular Components Molecules Muscle Cell
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Body Fluid Compartments In primeval seas unicellular organisms simply took in nutrients and excreted wastes simply and directly from the surrounding salt water. Most of the cells of multicellular organisms are not in direct contact with outside water. The Extracellular Fluid Compartment (ECF) serves as an artificial ocean surrounding each cell. It even has the constituency of sea water. The composition of the ECF compartment is kept constant via the circulatory system.
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About 20% of ECF is plasma in the circulatory system and the remainder is fluid bathing all the cells of the body, ISF (Interstitial Fluid). The other major fluid compartment is the Intracellular Fluid Compartment (ICF) . These compartments are separated from each other by membranes and require specialized transports for molecules to pass into these compartments.
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HOMEOSTASIS A defining characteristic of complex living systems where the many variables necessary for survival are maintained within relatively narrow ranges . Egs. (human system) - Temperature - 98.6 degrees; pH - 7.35 to 7. 43; Arterial Blood Pressure - 100mm/Hg (mean); Extracellular fluid volume; Extracellular K+ concentration - 4 mM; Etc, etc. etc!!!!!!
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How is homeostasis maintained? By Negative Feedback Systems
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1 Intro to A & P copy - INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGY...

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