1 PDF_Intro to CV System

1 PDF_Intro to CV System - THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM...

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THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Function of the system as a whole.
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What does the CV System consist of ? What is the Purpose of the CV System? Answer 1. Pump ( Heart ) 2. Distribution vehicle ( blood ) 3. Distribution conduits ( blood vessels ) Answer – Delivery of necessary materials to and from cells
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Why is a CV system necessary? Answer – In a large multicellular organism diffusion would deliver nutrients and oxygen, etc much too slow. How is the delivery made? Answer By BULK FLOW using blood as a vehicle to carry materials throughout the system.
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Answer - 1. The Circulatory system is a system of conduits, blood vessels and the entire system is circular (Discovered by William Harvey in the 17th century. 2. The heart pumps the vehicle , blood, around this endless conveyor belt. 3. The blood vessels branch to such an extreme degree that every cell is within a few cell diameters of a blood vessel (5 to 10 microns). 4. Materials are CARRIED by this conveyor belt of blood vessels. They enter and leave via the smallest vessels called capillaries . 5. Transport of materials between capillaries and cells is by diffusion (very efFcient when the distance is microns). Not Bulk ±low ! What is the general mode of operation of this delivery system?
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Blood carries materials around the circulation bringing vital nutrients and oxygen, etc to cells. Each tissue has its own capillary system where the materials enter and exit the blood stream.
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BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS Total Body water (intracellular plus extracellular) = 40 L Extracellular = 15 L Intracellular = 25 L 60% of Total Weight
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BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS (Continued) Extracellular water (ECF) (15 L) Vascular water (3 L) Interstitial Fluid (ISF) (12 L) Misc. (negligible) NOTE The total blood volume, however, is 5 L because it contains, in addition to water, cells.
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BLOOD CONSTITUENTS 2 Components – Plasma and Formed Elements Plasma 1. The aqueous fuid portion o± the blood . It communicates directly with the interstitial fuid via pores in the capillaries so that the composition o± the plasma is about the same as interstitial fuid with the exception o± proteins (later). 2 . Plasma carries things to and ±rom cells. H O W ? H Y D R O P H I L I C H Y D R O P H O B I C Things that can dissolve in water and Things that can’t Eg. – Electrolytes, glucose, etc Eg. – Oxygen, Lipids, etc. (Must be carried by proteins like hemoglobin, lipoproteins, etc)
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BLOOD CONSTITUENTS (cont.) 3. Proteins – Proteins have a number of functions in the blood; carriers, hemostasis (clotting), enzymatic, etc. a . Proteins cannot Ft through the pores in capillaries so they stay within the blood vessels. Therefore, plasma and interstitial ±uid (IS²) have the same composition EXCEPT ²OR PROTEINS. This gives the plasma a higher osmotic pressure than IS² and therefore water ±ows into the vascular compartment from the IS². This keeps ±uid within the vessels . b. The osmotic difference due to protein is called the
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1 PDF_Intro to CV System - THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM...

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