Sociology 101 final exam review

Sociology 101 final exam review - Sociology 101...

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Sociology 101 – Sociological Perspectives Final Exam Review #1 According to Kenworthy in “Is Equality Feasible?,” must national governments choose between economies that produce low income inequality and high unemployment, versus those that lead to low unemployment and high income inequality? No, though there is a moderate association between high and low income and high and low unemployment. The existence of such trade-offs doesn’t mean that high employment is compatible with low income inequality. What is the difference between inequality and unfairness? Under what conditions do people think of inequality as fair? People can view inequality as fair or unfair. Inequality is a state that is or isn’t fair is a perception. Inequality, much of the inequality is viewed as fair by many people. Perception of inequality can change as inequality changes. Changes happen when a large number of people change their mind about what is fair. Argument fair = natural. The way things are now is not what has been or what has to be. What can the Gini Coefficient be used to measure? the inequality between income and wealth According to Kenworthy in “Tax Myths,” why do most Western nations have total tax rates that are flat or regressive across income levels, despite progressive income taxes? Income taxes are indeed progressive, but that’s offset by regressive payroll and consumption taxes. Payroll taxes, which fund social security and medicare, are levied at a flat rate (7.65 percents) regardless of how much one earns. But earnings above a certain amount are exempt from the payroll tax, so the portion of earnings taxed is larger for low and middle earners than for high earners. According to Kenworthy, what effect do taxes have on income inequality? What effect do income transfers have? taxes and government transfer reduce income inequality rather than just taxes. What effect does the estate tax have on the inter-generational transfer of wealth, according to Keister in “Repealing the Estate Tax”? The estate tax is currently a tax on the wealthy, by repealing those funds have to be made up through everyone else. The estate tax has created more wealth inequality. What is alienation? What is anomie? How were these concepts originally applied to the working class? How could they be applied to the super-rich? Alienation: Social and psychological separation between oneself and one’s life experiences. Anomie: the lack (or ineffectiveness) of normative regulation within society. Alienation and anomie was typical of the working class because they were mechanical and lacked the resources to maintain a typical sociological life. They apply to the super-rich because these people struggle to find meaning. Be able to use examples from “Born Rich” to explain concepts related to income and wealth inequality.
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This note was uploaded on 04/30/2011 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor - during the Spring '11 term at UNC.

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Sociology 101 final exam review - Sociology 101...

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