2-21 ... outline_The Crusades - Copy

2-21 ... outline_The Crusades - Copy - b Pope Urban II...

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The Crusades: European Responses to Islam and “Heretics” I. Crusades and medieval European values: order and hierarchy a. “Papal monarchy” II. Competition between popes and kings a. Holy Roman Emperor, Papal States b. Divisive issues: lay investiture, simony c. King Henry II (1154-1189), Thomas Becket (Archbishop of Canterbury) d. Investiture Controversy (1070-1122), Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII (ruled 1073-1085), excommunication e. Pope Innocent III (1198-1216), claims higher authority, interdicts III. The Crusades a. Precedents in Sicily and Spain, pilgrimages to Jerusalem
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Unformatted text preview: b. Pope Urban II, Clarmont in 1095 c. The First Crusade (1096-1099), Crusader Kingdom in Palestine, Saladin (1187) d. Later crusades, business, Fourth Crusade (1202-1204): Venetians, Constantinople IV. Crusades and “Western” Identity? a. “Western” identity through opposition to “others”? V. “Heretics” and Church reform a. Peter Waldo, Waldensians (c. 1170) b. Albigensians (Cathars), rigid anti-materialism, Albigensian Crusade c. Violence against Jews d. St. Francis (1182-1226), Franciscan Order, emphasis on poverty...
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