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McCulloch (1891) The Tribe of Ishmael

McCulloch (1891) The Tribe of Ishmael - The Tribe of...

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Unformatted text preview: The Tribe of Ishmael: Diagram ACCOMPANYING PAPER READ BEFORE THE NATIONAL Gunm- zncn or Cmmns A'r Bun-mm, July 5—1:, 1888, BY OSCAR C. McCULLOCI-I. DIAGRAM PREPARED 3? Mass. KATE F. PARKER, JAMES F. WRIGHT, mom naconns III THE ops-1c); or nu: CHARITY ORGANIZATION 50mm, INDIANAroLIs. Price 50 mm. The Tribe of Ishmael; fl Stung in Social Eegrabation. 139 @568: GI. WNW. “PRINTED PROM PROCEEDINGS OF THE FIFTEENTH NATIONAL CONFERENCE 0F CHARITIES AX!) CORRECTION. HELD AT BUFFALO. JI'LY, 1888- fourth Button. Eecember,1891. f ' c I... CHARITY exam-mm SOCIETY. mmmma. -P.!II'-l'l H'IIQ'Q.CI Yours very truly, JAMES‘_ SMITH; : -_ _ . _ gICr‘tntmt-Femkrfi -- ' 2 "TheT'Tribe of Ishmael: El 51111113 in Eocialfl Eegrabation. ' isomer 1:. Mccullocbr ”1-D but suggestive to the student of' social science. . shaped body, with a bunch of 1cot~1ike processes through as the Sacculina.1t 1s a crustacean Which has left the : free, i-ngicpend'entiiic common to- its family 31:16:13 living (ttaches itself t0' the. Crab, loses the characteristics .cf- the 'ig her class. and. becomes degraded' 111 form 11nd- function. . He takes ‘11 minute organism which 18 found attacheci' to the body of the helmit crab It. has a. kidney- bean- .. ' which it Sucks the iiving tissues oi" the crab,It'__13 known The studies of Ray Lankaster into “Degeneration ” ' are not only interesting to the student of physical science, ' s a parisite, or-pau1'1er..- The yccng: have: the N1111p11'u11 " -. for-111 belonging to 1111 crustacea: it is a free swimmérp . - But Very 11111111 after hi_1:th-a change comes eve-r it; '-.It;. ' i111 irresistible. hechiitary tendency siezes upon it, and it 1111011111113;- A hereditary tendency I say ,h-ecausc: some ”remote ancest'cr- left its independent, self-helpful life, and " e 11 a arasitic," .or an 13.11121.th 111,111 its or 11s ofiéifeiiiaip, they. on}: 1131:2118 have disappfarcd ,smglilags _ 1113! other: members, -_—-_'11ntii there' 13 left 11 shapeless mass, 11111111111 the stomach and organs of reproduction left This tendency "to parasitism was transmitted to its de— ccndants .untii- there' .1s set up an irresistibie hereiiitary- tendency , and the Saccnliné 3111;111:163 111 nature as 'a type 'f degradation through parasitism, or panpensm. '1) - _ " ' l I propose to trace the his-tux}: 0f simiiar degradatiun. ' . -' 5 in man. It. is no pleasant study, but it maybe relied ' ‘ upon a? fact. It is no isolated case; It is no! lie'cuiiar tin Hiaiiiiifl. In ail probability, similar study would Show similar resuits in any of our States. It resembles the study of Dr. Dugdale into the Jukcs, and xx‘Esfls—tfggested . by that. It‘exteuds, Bowever‘fmver a larger field, com— - E prising over-“mfg hundred and fifty known families, thirty - _ ‘5 of which have hé'enfvmkém nitti.fas‘1ypi¢}zj__ Cages, and dia~ " grained hgijg. The. 119.1115,“th tribe of ISh'miiel,” is giveii became that is the name of the can't-ml, the Dicks-1t, and the most. widely mmified famiiy. _ In the. late, fall of 1877, I visiteri a case. of extreme (lest-itutitm. There were githeréd in finer-00m, without fire, an old blind woman, :1 man, his wife'mir} one chih‘l, hi5 sister anti two children. A half-bed was all the fur— nishing. No chair, table, or conkimg utensils._ I pru- vixled for their immediate:- wants, Ema then looked into the records ofthe township trustee. I found that. I had - ' gtouchad a family known as the VESUPEEIS: which had a. épamper his-tor}? of several ge’iiemtiuué; and so inter- gnlarrieé with others. as tn finuié} pamper ggxligiirm pf ; :_ 'seveml hundreds. \‘At the C'xiiif'eréricéi' zif”'C}évelamri, I - reported this case. The investigatieus have sincé been. extended. Year by year the weird has gmwu. Hi5— _torical data 11f two humh‘cd and fifty families. have: been gathered, and mi the acmmpaaying diagram thirty tiimilies are traced. This diagram is prepared by Mrs. ;. Kate F. Parker, registrar of the Charity 0rgani2atiou--_ '_ Sucivty, and Mr. Frank Wright, detaiied by the want-y '- ' umnmissinne-rs to assist in the prosecution nf this:invest=i-- tiou. The number HF families here studied-is. thirty. f chest-3,1)tily two are known bailiff: 1340: They: aw found here at that time. ' . ' '. . The central famiiymthat which gives its name. tau the? tribe: IJfIS-hfllgci-HEL’SE appears E115 Indianapulis 1.111111. 1 1840. 'f‘Ew-fifigiuai' Emil-y ém, mt" which \m-huve 539.1121 records :15 fiu‘ bad: :15 1731“}, :15 then in Kentucky.having mime from Muryiand, thmugii- I’ennrsyivunin. Ben ishmaei bad right chihi.rvc_u,— five: sums and three :3 ’-§_.-dnughter5. Some of the descendants are now living in -Kentucl{y, and are prosperous, wail-regarded citizens. One son named John married at halifibreed woman, and came into Marion county, Indiana; 31mm; 1840. He '53- _' was diseased, and could go no further. He had seven ‘ "children, of whom two wereleft iii-Kentucky, one islost . sight of, and one remained unmarried. The remaining three sons married three sisters from a pauper family named Smith. These'had children, of whom fourteen :3" lived; and thirteen raised families, having sixty chil- -_dron, of whom thirty are now living in the fifth genera» ' ' tion. Since 18—10, this family has had a. pauper record. The}r . the Women’s Reformatory, the penitentinries, and have _._-'_recei.ved continuous aid from the township. They are inter-married with the other members of this group, as pylon-may see by-the marriae lines, and with over two '-'bundred' other families. In this family history are f..'_ murders, a large number of illegitimneies and of prosti— rfir totes} They are generally mdioensed. The children die ' --young. [Pile—3! 'li'i'emb'y pettj'w stealing, begging, ash- gathering. In summer they “gyPSy,” or travel in -_ wagons east or west. ' We hear of them in Illinois about :2... .- Decatur, and ill-Ohio about Columbus. - In the fail they 1'. I have been in the nllhshouse, the House of Refuge, " return. They have been known 'to'iive in hollow trees. '- onjthe river-bottoms or in omptyhonses. Strangely, _' onengh they are-not intemperate to excess. In this sketch, three things will be evident: - First}... the: wandering blood-from the half-breed mother, in the 'sooond generation the poison and the passion:thatzprob- .' ably came with her. Second, the' licentiol'loness-Iwhioh ' 'ohnraoterizes nli'the men and women, and the diseased and physically weakened condition. From this result- fme'ntnl weakness, general incapacity, and unfitness for ' herd 'woi'fllg. _ And, third, this condition is hiet'bf'the rhenei‘ifilent public with flalmost unlimited public and private aid, thuseneouraging them in this idle, wander- for . i thepropugation of simiiariy disposed-" war-MEN."- i 4 _ A second typical case is that of the Owens family, also from Kentucky. There were originally Four children, 'of' whom two have been traced, William and Brook. William had three children, who raisedlmuper families. Ono son of the third generation died in the peniten- tiary ; his two sons in the fourth generation have been in the penitentiary; a daughter in the fourth generation wasa prostitute, with two illegitimate children. .‘Another son of the third generation had‘a penitentiary record, and died of the delirium tremcns and went. to the medical college. There have been several murders; a continu- _ nus pauper and criminal record. An illegitimate half- ; breed Canadian woman enters this family. There is '7. much prostitution, but little interlipcrance. Brook had a son John, who was a Presbyterian min— ister. He raised a family of fourteen illegitimate chil- dren. Ten of these came to Indiana, and their pauper record begins about- 1850. Of the ten, three raised il- legitimate families iu the fourth generation; and, of these, two daughters and a son have illegitimate chil~ dran in the fifth generation. I take those two cases as typical. I could have taken any other one of the thirty; or, indeed, I. could have . worked out a diagram of two hundred and fifty families as minutely as these. Returning now to the record, let me call your atten-_ tiou to the following: We start; at some unknown date with thirty families. These came mostly from Kentucky, Tennessee, and North Carolina. Of the first generation, m—of‘ sixty-two individuals,—-we know certainly of only three. in the second generation, we have the historyr of _ eightyvfour. In the third generation, we have the his—- ' ‘ . tory of two hundred and eighty-three. In the fourth ' ' generation,—-1340-1860,~—we have the history of six ' hundred and forty~four. In the fifth generation,—-18tiO—~ "1880,-we have the history of six hundred and seventy» nine. In the sixth generation,-—1880-1890,~—we have the history of fifty-seven. Here is a total of 1,?50 3 individuals. Before Elie fourth generation,—mfrom 1840 3-5 to 1860i-m-we have but. scant records. Our more cook '7""'_'.large,—-—-petty thieving, lareouies chiefly. There hav , p 4'} 5-plete data begin With the iourth generation, and the =¥:___ following are valuable. We know of one hundred and --tweuty—one prostitutes. The criminal record is ver -' been a number of murders. The first murder com-l; mitted in the citr was in this family. A long and: celebrated murder'case, known as the “ Clem ” murder, [3 "ascostiug the State immense amounts of money, 15 looatedg'l if here. Nearly every crime of any note bolouws hereél [Between 1868 and-1888 not less than five thousand? dollars has been paid for “passing” these people. iron}: place to place, each. township ofiioer trying to throw oi? ' responsibility. The records of tho city hospital show thnt+takingout surgical oases, acute general diseases, and cases outside the oity—seventy-five per cent. of the cases treated are from thisolass. The number-oi illegit- imaoiesis very- great. ' The Board offiealth reports that. an estimate of stilhhoru children-found in sinks, etc., would not. be less than six per week. Deaths are frequent, and chiefly among children. _ The suffering of the children must be great. The people have no occur; _ potion. They gather- swill or ashes; the womeunhegl ‘j ' and send the children a‘rouudto beg j. théy'mako their "eyes sore with vitriol. In my own-exporieoco, I‘have " iseeo three'genemtions of beggars among them. I have not time here. to go into details, some loathsome, all pitiful. _I_ was with a greatwgrandmother on her death- bed; She had been taken sick on the annual gypsying ; ' lesorted at; a little town because sick 3 shipped-into the :otty ; sent to the county asylum; at last brought to the miserable homo to die. One evening I_ was called to marry a couple. I found them in one small room, with "two héds. - In all,~éloven people. lived in- it. The bride jwas-'dl'essiog,jtho groom iv’ashiog. __A'n'obiior member of _ the. family filled a coal-oil lamp while burning. The - groom offered]; to haul ashes for the fee. I made a.- .' present to.=th'o'-hride. Soon aft-er, Lashed one of-tho_ . . "family how they. were gettiugroo. -“ Oh, Elisha don’t live with her any-more”. “Why?” “Her other flmsband came back, and she wont to him. That made 6 'Elislia mad, and he left- her.” Elisha died in the pest- . house. A. mother and two girls, present that night, “ were killed by the ears. All these are grim facts; but they are. facts, and can be verified. More: the)r are but thirty famlies out of a possible two hundred and fifty. T he individuals already traced are over five thousand, intern-men by descent and .‘ marriage. The},r nnderrun society like devil—grass. I Pick up one, and the whole five thousand will be drawn up. Over seven thousand pages of history are now on 1 file in the Charity Organization Society. \w- A few deductions from these data are offered for your = consideration. First, this is a study intosocial degen— eration, or degmdation which is similar to that sketched by Dr. Lanhfi’ster. As in the lower orders, so in society we have parasitism, or social degradation. There is reason to believe that some of this comes from the old convict stock which England threw into this country in the Seventeenth century. We find-the wandering tend- _‘ ency so marked in the case of. the “Cracker ” and the. ' .“ Pike” here. “ Movin’ on.” There is scarcely a day ._ .that‘thc wagons are not to be seen on our streets; our _ - dogs; tow-headed children. They camp outside. the city, _ and then beg! Two families, as I write, have come by, ' moving from north to south, and from east- to west. ' ' “ Hunting work ”; and yet we :an give work to a thous— sand men on our gas trenches. J Next, note the, general ilneliastity that characterizes thisclass The prostitution and illegitiniacy'are'large, the tendency shows itself in incests, and relations lower than the animals go. This is due to the dcprava» tion of nature, to crowded conditions, to absence of :i d'eeencios and cleanliness. It is an animal reversion, i" which can he paralleied in lower animals. This physi— ', cal depravity is followed hy physical weakness. Ont " of this come the frequent deaths, the still-horn children, and the general incapacity to endure hard work or had "5; climate. They can not "work hard, and break down 7 early. They then appear in the county asylum, the city hospital, and the township trustee’s office. r-y i Thirdnnotesthejoree of" heredity. Each child- tends “to the same life, reverts when-{Elfin out. ' -' '- And. 1359135. note themiefieeeeemefimthesqreat factorq .pnhlic relief. Since 1840, relief has been given to"? 6mm.“ . ' ' At th‘i‘i‘t'iififi' we find that “old E. Huggins ” applied to have his wife Barthenia sent tothe poor house. A, pre- mium was then paid for idieness and wandering. ' The --.a-monut paid by the township for public relief varies, rising as high as $90,000 in 1876, sinking in 1878 to $7,000,:md ranging with the different trustees from 33-” $7,000 to $22,000 per year. Of this amount,.fu1l_v threa- 5_ ifourths has gone to this class. Public relief, then, is i , ' _ - . i '.."' Echnrgeablc in a large degree With the-perpetuationof i, . T'tlfis stock. The township trustee is practically un-E _}limited in his. powers. He can give as much as he sees E fit. As the office is a political one, about the time of E '_ nomination and election the amounts increase largely. i‘The politiCal bosscs favor this, and use it,—now.in the j} _r-Intercsts of the Republican, now of the Democratic} _ ' arty. It thus becomes a corruption fund of the worshi- ind. - ' . ' What the township trustee fails to (lo, private .henevo—. E: - . _ . ence supplements. Thesmcalled charitable people who -' E ' ive to begging children and women with ibnsketsjhnre - - ' vastsiu-to answ‘er'for. If; is from them t‘hattlii's nuper element gets its consent-to exist. Churity'éfalseéj y. so—caiiedecovers- a multitude of sins, and sends the _ ' " )auper out. with the benediction, “ be fruitful and -m_ul-' ‘ ' .ipi'y.” 3 Such charity has made't-his element, has brought hildren to the birth, end-insured them a. life oF-miseryxw _ old,_hunger, sickness. Sin-celledcherit}r joins pubiic Li‘s. eiief' in producing still«horn children,_ raising prosti~ 5.. i Eutea, and educating criminals. ' “M Some persons think it. hard that we saytiothe public, Give no relief tomén 'or boys asking forfcod, to worncn iegging,_t.o childrq-zn '-witl| baskets, ill—clad, wasted, and ran;".-“-I chu’t-resist'the appeal of a childfi’thcg say, Do. you know what- this means? It means the perv pctnation of this misery. It means condemning to a ifeiof hunger and want and exposure these children. 8 It means the education of the street, the after life of vice. and crime. Two little boys sell flowers at'the . doors ol church and theatre. They ring bellsa-t night, ask- ing to get warm. Seemingly kind people give them money. They are children of parents who could, if . they would, earn enough to support them in comfort. ‘- Your kindness keeps them out in the cold.- Your own children are warm in'bed. They ought to be, but your cruel kindness forces them out in the street. So you 2‘, are to be made a party to this? You remember the ' story of Hugo’s, “The Man 'Who.Laughs,”—~the boy deformed for the sake of the profit it would be? So with these children. They are kept in a life of pain,- shut in to misery by the aims of cruel—kind, people. And this is why our Charity Organization Society asks you not to give films, but to give counsel, time, and pan tience to rescue such as these. . l . Do any of these get out of the festering __mass? 0f 'p } this whole number, I know of but one who has escaped, ‘ I and is to—day an honorable man. I have tried again and l l again to lilt them, but they sink hack. They are a de- oeyin stockrthey can not longer live sell-dependent. The dilildren reappear with the-old busket.' The girl begins the lile of prostitution, and is soon seen witl ' her own illegitimate child, The young of the Saoeulina - at first have the Naupiius form icomn’ion' to their order. -- . Then theloree of inherited parasitism. compels them to 9(iiLstiiii"tl1eiii ' l Lie—lie iiiit"7er:ili". """1_‘lié"‘free-swim -'jmin"g leg" the disused mo’iignu‘s disappear. Sow . ‘5have the samein the pauper. . Self-help disappears. - All tgthe organs and powers that belong to the free life disap- ipenr, and there are left only the tendency to parasitism '1 and the dehasemeut of the reproductive - tendency. ' §§These are not tramps, as: we know tramps, nor- poor, but paupers. _ ' ' What can we do'." First, we must close up official i out—dogr relief. Second, we must check private and in--_ Edisoriminute benevolence, or charity, falsely so-oalled;. f Third, we must get hold of the children. . i i . a ...
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