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Unformatted text preview: Understanding Packet Delivery Performance In Dense Wireless Sensor Networks * Jerry Zhao Computer Science Department University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089-0781 [email protected] Ramesh Govindan Computer Science Department University of Southern California Los Angeles, CA 90089-0781 [email protected] ABSTRACT Wireless sensor networks promise fine-grain monitoring in a wide variety of environments. Many of these environ- ments ( e.g., indoor environments or habitats) can be harsh for wireless communication. From a networking perspec- tive, the most basic aspect of wireless communication is the packet delivery performance: the spatio-temporal charac- teristics of packet loss, and its environmental dependence. These factors will deeply impact the performance of data acquisition from these networks. In this paper, we report on a systematic medium-scale (up to sixty nodes) measurement of packet delivery in three different environments: an indoor office building, a habitat with moderate foliage, and an open parking lot. Our findings have interesting implications for the design and evaluation of routing and medium-access protocols for sensor networks. Categories and Subject Descriptors C.2.1 [ Network Architecture and Design ]: Wireless communication; C.4 [ Performance of Systems ]: Perfor- mance attributes, Measurement techniques General Terms Measurement, Experimentation Keywords Low power radio, Packet loss, Performance measurement 1. INTRODUCTION Wireless communication has the reputation of being no- toriously unpredictable. The quality of wireless communica- tion depends on the environment, the part of the frequency * This work is supported in part by NSF grant CCR-0121778 for the Center for Embedded Systems. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. SenSys’03, November 5–7, 2003, Los Angeles, California, USA. Copyright 2003 ACM 1-58113-707-9/03/0011 ... $ 5.00. spectrum under use, the particular modulation schemes un- der use, and possibly on the communicating devices them- selves. Communication quality can vary dramatically over time, and has been reputed to change with slight spatial displacements. All of these are true to a greater degree for ad-hoc (or infrastructure-less) communication than for wire- less communication to a base station. Given this, and the paucity of large-scale deployments, it is perhaps not surpris- ing that there have been no medium to large-scale measure- ments of ad-hoc wireless systems; one expects measurement studies to reveal high variability in performance, and one suspects that such studies will be non-representative....
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- Spring '11
- Sensor node, Wireless sensor network, packet loss, packet delivery, packet delivery performance