Biochem - B iochem Exam 1 Objectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES: C...

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Biochem Exam 1 Objectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES: CHAPTER 1 (20-25 pts) 1. Describe the contributions to Biochemistry of Wholer, Mendel, Paracelsus, Miescher, Pauling, and Watson and Crick Wholer – lab synthesis of urea Mendel – created the laws of genetics Paracelsus – The father of biochemistry Miescher – made the discovery of DNA Pauling – used x-ray crystallography to study the structure of amides and peptides Watson and Crick – found that the structure of DNA is the Double Helix 2. List 6 elements found in bulk form and essential for life; list 4 elements in trace quanitites in most organisms and very likely essential for life; list 4 trace elements present in some oraganisms and possibly essential for life. - C arbon, H yrdrogen, O xygen, N itrogen, S ulfur, P hosphorous ( CHONSP ) (6 essential) -Zinc, Potassium, Iron, Magnesium (4 trace) 3. Recognize the unique role of carbon in biomolecules; review the names and structures of common organic functional groups - Covalently linked C atoms form linear, branched, and cyclic backbones, giving immense variety of compounds. 4. Name the simple building blocks (biomolecules) that compose macromolecules. - Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids. 5. Distinguish the two great classes of cells by dimension, molecular composition, and biological function. - prokaryotic cells: cells that lack a membrane-bound nucleus are called prokaryote; these cells have few internal structures that are distinguishable under a microscope; prokaryotic cells differ significantly from eukaryotic
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cells; they don't have a membrane-bound nucleus and instead of having chromosomal DNA, their genetic information is in a circular loop called a plasmid. Bacterial cells are very small, roughly the size of an animal mitochondrion (about 1-2μm in diameter and 10 μm long; they serve as decomposers, agents of fermentation, and play an important role in our own digestive system; they are involved in many nutrient cycles such as the nitrogen cycle, which restores nitrate into the soil for plants - eukaryotic cells: comprise all of the life kingdoms except monera; they can be easily distinguished through a membrane-bound nucleus; also contain many internal membrane-bound structures called organelles 6. Outline the cellular organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic (both animal and higher plant) cells; identify or roughly sketch the appearance of each component or organelle; list function(s) for each component or organelle.
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7. Define genome, replication, transcription, translation, template, DNA, RNA. -genome: entirety of genetic (chromosomal) information for a cell
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2011 for the course CHEMISTRY 410 taught by Professor Bayse during the Spring '11 term at Spelman.

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Biochem - B iochem Exam 1 Objectives LEARNING OBJECTIVES: C...

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