09+BIOL151X+S11+Mechs+of+evol+2+Sakai

09+BIOL151X+S11+Mechs+of+evol+2+Sakai - 09 Mechanisms of...

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1 09 Mechanisms of Evolution Populations with variation evolve by natural selection genetic drift gene flow To determine what factors contribute to evolution in a population, we can apply the Hardy-Weinberg principle of equilibrium to generate a baseline against which we can measure change in a real population.
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2 Genetic variation Genetic variation among individuals is caused by different alleles at one or more genes. When caused by a single gene with ≥ 2 alleles, the trait is “discrete” When caused by multiple genes with ≥ 2 alleles, the trait is “quantitative” Genes can have additive or multiplicative effects on a trait continuum. Genes can interact to have “epistatic” effects on trait. Mutation and sexual reproduction introduce and maintain genetic variation in a population.
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3 bases chromosome nucleus cell DNA and genes overview Genes are made up of consecutive bases Chromosomes carry 10s to 1000s of genes.
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4 Mutation Individual DNA sequence Protein state 1 AAATTT normal function 2 AA T TTT normal function 3 AA C TTT abnormal or no function
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5 Sexual reproduction
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09+BIOL151X+S11+Mechs+of+evol+2+Sakai - 09 Mechanisms of...

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