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Unformatted text preview: Open system can exchange both energy and matter with the surroundings Closed system exchanges energy but NOT matter with the surroundings Isolated system neither energy nor matter can be exchanged with the surroundings Thermodynamic systems Work By definition dW = Fdl For a change in the volume of a fluid moving in a cylinder resulting from the movement of a piston (A is a constant), t PdV PAdl dW = = Review  Part one FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The total energy of the universe remains constant. U of the system + U of the surrounding = 0 U = Q + W State function a function that depends on the state or conditions of the system and NOT on the details of how it came to be in that state. Extensive property dependent on the amount of matter in the system. e.g. mass, volume, U etc V t = mV, U t = mU Intensive Property NOT dependent on the amount of matter in the system. e.g. pressure, density, temperature etc The phase rule F = 2  + N : the number of phases N: the number of chemical species F: Degree of freedom of the system, THE REVERSIBLE PROCESS A process is reversible when its direction can be reversed at any point by an infinitesimal change in external conditions. A reversible process: Is frictionless. Is never more than differentially removed from equilibrium. Traverses a succession of equilibrium states. Can be reversed at any point by a differential change in external conditions. When reversed, retraces its forward path, and restores the initial state of system and surroundings dW = PdV t For gas in a cylinder expansion at reversible condition  = t t V V t PdV W 2 1 The reversible process is ideal in that it produces the best possible result, but is never fully realized. Constant V and Constant P Processes For n moles of homogeneous fluid contained in a closed system d(nU) = dQ + dW dW = Pd(nV) so d(nU) = dQ Pd(nV) If V is constant dQ = d(nU) or Q = n U (at constant V) For constant P We have dQ = d(nU) + d(nPV) = d[n(U+PV)] define H U + PV dQ = d(nH) or Q = n H (constant P) From dQ = d(nU) + d(nPV) = d[n(U+PV)] Heat Capacity C dQ/dT : Similar to Q, this is a processdependent quality rather than a state function....
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2011 for the course CHBE 2110 taught by Professor Gallivan during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.
 Spring '08
 Gallivan

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