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Review-part 1

# Review-part 1 - Review Part one Thermodynamic systems Open...

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Open system – can exchange both energy and matter with the surroundings Closed system – exchanges energy but NOT matter with the surroundings Isolated system – neither energy nor matter can be exchanged with the surroundings Thermodynamic systems Work By definition dW = Fdl For a change in the volume of a fluid moving in a cylinder resulting from the movement of a piston (A is a constant), t PdV PAdl dW - = - = Review - Part one

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FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The total energy of the universe remains constant. U of the system + U of the surrounding = 0 U = Q + W State function – a function that depends on the state or conditions of the system and NOT on the details of how it came to be in that state. Extensive property – dependent on the amount of matter in the system. e.g. mass, volume, U etc V t = mV, U t = mU Intensive Property – NOT dependent on the amount of matter in the system. e.g. pressure, density, temperature etc The phase rule F = 2 - π + N π : the number of phases N: the number of chemical species F: Degree of freedom of the system,
THE REVERSIBLE PROCESS A process is reversible when its direction can be reversed at any point by an infinitesimal change in external conditions. A reversible process: Is frictionless. Is never more than differentially removed from equilibrium. Traverses a succession of equilibrium states. Can be reversed at any point by a differential change in external conditions. When reversed, retraces its forward path, and restores the initial state of system and surroundings dW = -PdV t For gas in a cylinder expansion at reversible condition - = t t V V t PdV W 2 1 The reversible process is ideal in that it produces the best possible result, but is never fully realized.

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Constant V and Constant P Processes For n moles of homogeneous fluid contained in a closed system d(nU) = dQ + dW dW = -Pd(nV) so d(nU) = dQ -Pd(nV) If V is constant dQ = d(nU) or Q = n U (at constant V) For constant P We have dQ = d(nU) + d(nPV) = d[n(U+PV)] define H U + PV dQ = d(nH) or Q = n H (constant P) From dQ = d(nU) + d(nPV) = d[n(U+PV)]
Heat Capacity C dQ/dT : Similar to Q, this is a process-dependent quality rather than a state function.

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Review-part 1 - Review Part one Thermodynamic systems Open...

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