Kidney Case 2009 - Take Home Quiz

Kidney Case 2009 - Take Home Quiz - ChBE 2100 Take Home...

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ChBE 2100 Take Home Quiz Summer 2009 You will have a maximum of 3 hours to complete all problems; your signature under the Honor Code signifies that you understand the allotted time limit and are agreeing to uphold the terms that are set for this Quiz. Note that this is NOT a homework assignment and should not be discussed with anyone, and you may use only your textbook as a reference. You should show ALL work. Honor Code: I commit to uphold the ideals of honor and integrity by refusing to betray the trust bestowed upon me as a member of the Georgia Tech community. _______________________________________ Signature 1
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Case Study Better than Brita®: The Human Kidneys The kidneys (Figure 1) are two bean-shaped organs whose main functions are to remove toxins from the blood and to regulate the amount of fluid in the body through the formation of urine. The kidneys are located below the middle of the back near the rear wall of the abdomen, on either side of the spine. Each kidney is a mere 11 cm in length and weighs only 160 grams. The kidneys are individually encased in a transparent, fibrous membrane called the renal capsule, which shields the kidney against trauma and infection. The concave part of the kidney attaches to the renal artery and the renal vein, two of the body's crucial blood vessels. The kidney is also attached to the ureter, the vessel that transports urine to the bladder. Blood enters the kidneys through the renal artery at an average flow rate 1.2 L/min (~25% of cardiac output). i The artery branches into a network of smaller blood vessels called arterioles, eventually ending in tiny capillaries in the nephron, the functional unit of the kidney (Figure 2). Approximately one million nephrons are present to clean the blood through filtration, reabsorption and secretion processes. The nephron is composed of the glomerulus surrounded by Bowman’s capsule, a renal tubule, and a collecting duct. The glomerulus filters the blood, retaining red blood cells and proteins. The filtered components include water and other low molecular weight molecules. The renal tubule, composed of the convoluted tubule and the loop of Henle, is mainly involved in reabsorption and secretion. Semipermeable membranes surround the renal tubule, allowing selective passage of particles back into the blood (reabsorption), or from the blood into the tubule (secretion). All of the material that has not returned to the blood through the tubular membranes accumulates in the collecting duct. This material exits the kidney as urine. Clean blood exits the kidneys’ filtration system through the renal vein at a rate slightly under 1.2 L/min, ii while urine leaves the collecting duct at a rate of 1.05 mL/min. iii Each day, approximately 180 liters (about 50 gallons) of blood pass through the two kidneys, and about 1.5 liters (1.3 quarts) of urine are produce iv d.
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2011 for the course CHBE 2100 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Kidney Case 2009 - Take Home Quiz - ChBE 2100 Take Home...

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