CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Graphics Communication and
Chapter 1 is an introduction to the graphic language and tools of the engineer and technologist.
chapter explains why technical drawing is an effective way to communicate engineering concepts, relating
past developments to modern practices, and examines current industry trends, showing why engineers and
technologists today have an even greater need to master graphics communications.
Concepts and terms
important to understanding technical drawing are explained and defined, and an overview of the tools,
underlying principles, standards, and conventions of engineering graphics is included.
In addition, this
chapter introduces you to sketching and the use of sketching for lettering.
These techniques are expanded
on in later chapters.
Technical drawings are created using a variety of instruments, ranging from traditional tools, such as
pencils, compass, and triangles, to the computer.
Drawing tools are used to make accurate and legible
drawings and models.
Traditional drawing instruments are still important, especially for sketching; today,
however, the computer can be used for most drawing and modeling requirements.
This chapter is an
introduction to: computer-aided design/drafting (CAD) systems, including the related hardware, software,
and peripheral devices; and the traditional equipment normally used by engineers and technologists to
create technical drawing models.
In engineering, 92 percent of the design process is graphically based. The other 8 percent is
divided between mathematics, and written and verbal communications. Why? Because
graphics serves as the primary means of communication for the design process.
Drafting and documentation, along with design modeling, comprise over 50 percent of the
engineer's time and are purely visual and graphical activities. Engineering analysis depends
largely on reading engineering graphics, and manufacturing engineering and functional design
also require the production and reading of graphics.
Engineering graphics can also communicate solutions to technical problems. Such
engineering graphics are produced according to certain standards and conventions so they can
be read and accurately interpreted by anyone who has learned those standards and
A designer has to think about the many features of an object that cannot be communicated
with verbal descriptions.
Technical drawings are a nonverbal method of communicating
are creative people who use technical means to solve problems. They design
products, systems, devices, and structures to improve our living conditions.
assist engineers and are concerned with the practical aspects of engineering in planning and
Both engineers and technologists are finding that sharing technical information
through graphical means is becoming more important as more nontechnical people become
involved in the design/manufacturing process.
1.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF GRAPHICS IN THE DESIGN PROCESS