CHAPTER 11 The Engineering Design Process INTRODUCTION Technical graphics is an integral part of the engineering design process through which engineers and drafters/designers generate new ideas and solve problems. Traditionally, engineering design consisted of closely-related steps documented as paper graphics and text that flowed in a linear/sequential manner through an organization. In the face of increased global competition, many industries in the United States have adopted a team-oriented concurrent approach using 3-D CAD model information as a primary means for communication. This chapter describes a modern approach to the engineering design process so you will have a better understanding of and appreciation for the role of engineering graphics in the design process. 11.1 DESIGN Design is the process of conceiving or inventing ideas mentally and communicating these ideas to others in a form that is easily understood. Most often the communications tool is graphics. Design is used for two primary purposes: personal expression, and product or process development. Design for personal expression, usually associated with art, is divided into concrete (realistic) and abstract design and is often a source of beauty and interest. When a design serves some useful purpose, such as the shape of a new automobile wheel, it is classified as a design for product or process development. Aesthetic design is concerned with the look and feel of a product. Functional design is concerned with the function of a product or process. Function means that a product possesses a form related directly to the purpose of that product. Product Design is the process used to create new products, such as a new automobile model, a new appliance, and a new type of wheelchair. Product design is a complex activity that includes market, production, sales, service, function, and profit analyses used to produce a product that meets the wants and needs of the consumer, is economically produced, is safe for the consumer and the environment, and is profitable to the company. System design is the process used to create a new system or process. A systems engineer or industrial engineer is an engineer who specializes in designing systems. A system is an orderly arrangement of parts that are combined to serve one general function. 11.2 ENGINEERING DESIGN Engineering design is a problem-solving process that uses knowledge, resources, and existing products to create new goods and processes. Engineering design has both aesthetic and functional elements and can be broken into two broad categories: product design and system design. Engineering design is one of the processes normally associated with the entire business or enterprise, from receipt of the order or product idea, to maintenance of the product, and all stages in between. An engineering design involves both a process and a product. A process is a series of continuous actions ending in a particular result. A product is anything produced as
a result of some process. Graphics is an extremely important part of the engineering design
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- Fall '09
- ENGINEERING DESIGN Engineering