Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics Review zeroth law: -shotter...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–6. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Thermodynamics Special Topics 1 Thermodynamics Review zeroth law : -s hotter m hotter (T m -T h ) = s colder m colder (T m -T l ) first law : Δ U = q + w with q > 0 when heat absorbed; w < 0 when work done w = - P ext Δ VI f P ext =P int (reversible) & isothermal: i f i f P P ln RT V V ln RT w = = = i f i f V 1 V 1 a b V b V ln RT w Heat capacities: Δ H = Δ U + Δ (PV) Enthalpy: Δ U = q V Δ H = q P dT C U d : volume t tan cons At . T U C V V V = = dV P T P T dT C dU V V + = dT C H d : pressure t tan cons At T H C P P P = = dP V T V T dT C dH P P + + = if there is no change of phase
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Thermodynamics Special Topics 2 C P is usually given as a series on T: α + β T + γ T 2 or 2 T c T b a + + R 2 5 C R 2 3 C p v = = For ideal monoatomic gases: R C f f R C i i V V T V T V = Adiabatic, reversible, ideal gases: V P V P C C f f C C i i V P V P = Cp R i f i f P P T T = T q S reversible system Δ Second law: T q S surr = Δ h h h h T T T q q q l l = + = ε Engine efficiency: V ln R T w T q S T ln C T T C T U T q S T ln C T T C T H T q S rev rev T V V V rev V V p P P rev P P Δ = = = Δ Δ = Δ = Δ = = Δ Δ = Δ = Δ = = Δ Using third law:
Background image of page 2
Thermodynamics Special Topics 3 Gibbs Free Energy: Δ G = Δ H - T Δ S Pressure dependence (ideal gas, constant T): G 0 + n R T ln P (in bar) For a condensed phase: V Δ P Fugacity: where 0 0 P f ln RT G G + = f ≡φ P Activity: G i = G i 0 + RT ln a i RT ) P P ( V a ln 0 i = For a pure liquid or solid at a higher pressure: B A D C B A D C B A D C 0 P P P P ln RT ln RT f f f f ln RT G φ φ φ φ = = Δ K th K φ K P Temperature dependence: ) T T ( C ) T ( H ) T ( H 1 P 1 Δ + Δ Δ ) T ln T (ln C ) T ( S ) T ( S 1 p 1 Δ + Δ Δ R S T 1 R H K ln Δ + Δ = Gibbs-Helmholtz φ = gas activity coefficient γ = solution activity coefficient
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Thermodynamics Special Topics 4 THERMODYNAMICS – Special Topics Difference between C v and C p Joule-Thompson coefficient Carnot Cycle Entropy and pressure Entropy of mixing Entropy and statistical mechanics Helmholtz free energy The Maxwell relationships Derivation of Gibbs-Helmholtz equation Helmholtz free energy and pressure Calculation of fugacity The chemical potential Gibbs free energy of mixing Gibbs-Duhem equation The chemical potential and the equilibrium constant Determination of the number of independent components
Background image of page 4
Thermodynamics Special Topics 5 Difference between C V and C P P P P V P V P T V P T U T H : P t tan cons At T P V T V P T U dT dH s derivative partial use can we ) P , T ( H H Since dT dP V dT dV P dT dU dT dH : dT by Dividing VdP PdV dU ) PV ( d dU dH T U T H C C + = + + = + + = + + = + =
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 05/01/2011 for the course CHEM 346 taught by Professor Cardelino during the Spring '11 term at Spelman.

Page1 / 59

Thermodynamics - Thermodynamics Review zeroth law: -shotter...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 6. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online