Lesson_1.1_Printable_PPT

Lesson_1.1_Printable_PPT - Temperature and Kinetic theory...

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Unformatted text preview: Temperature and Kinetic theory of matter Heat is a form of energy and when heat is supplied to an object it increases the internal energy of the object. The internal energy of an object is made up of the kinetic end potential energies of its atoms and molecules. Atoms and molecules have kinetic energy because of their vibrational, rotational and translational motions. Potential energy of atoms and molecules are associated with their relative states or positions. Potential energy of a system is greater when objects are farther apart. Temperature When heat energy is supplied to an object, its temperature rises. The rise in temperature is purely due the increase in the translational kinetic energy of the molecules of the object. http://id.mind.net/~zona/mstm/physics/mechanics/energy/heatAndTem perature/gasMoleculeMotion/gasMoleculeMotion.html If the same quantity of heat is supplied to different quantities of water, their increase in temperature will not be the same despite the fact that the total increase in kinetic energy is the same in all cases. The larger quantity will have a smaller increase in temperature while the smaller quantity will have a larger increase in temperature. In case of the larger quantity, more number of olecules share the additional energy, while in the case molecules share the additional energy, while in the case of the smaller quantity, less number of molecules share the same increase and so the increase in kinetic energy per molecule will be larger in the smaller mass. Temperature of an object is proportional to the average kinetic energy of its molecules . In order to measure temperature, we make use of properties of materials that change with temperature. For example, most substances expand when heated, and the increase in volume is very nearly proportional to the change in temperature. Therefore, the increase in volume of a substance an be used to measure temperature. Measuring Temperature can be used to measure temperature. Mercury or alcohol in glass thermometer is an example of this . There are two main scales of temperature used in measuring temperature. One scale called the Celsius scale uses an arbitrary temperature, namely the temperature at which ice melts at tmospheric pressure, as its zero. o C Temperature Scales atmospheric pressure, as its zero. The other scale called the Kelvin scale uses the temperature at which the molecular energy is zero as its zero. 0 K o C In the Celsius scale, temperature is measured in a unit called degree Celsius ( o C), while in Kelvin scale the unit temperature is a Kelvin (K). We use t to represent temperature in Celsius scale and T for mperature in Kelvin scale. 273.15 K 100 o C 373.15 K 0 K temperature in Kelvin scale....
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Lesson_1.1_Printable_PPT - Temperature and Kinetic theory...

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