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Unformatted text preview: ORIGIN AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE IXODIDES (TICKS) WITHIN THE PARASITIFORMES REUTER 1909 (ACARINA) by W . KARG 1 A . SCHORLEMMER 2 (Accepted August 2008) PHYLOGENETIC METHODS PREDISPOSITIONS BEHAVIOUR FOOD SYSTEMATICS CLADOGRAM S ummary: Ixodides and Uropodina have a number of synapomorphies in com- mon, which are not present in other groups of the Parasitiformes. Anatomic- morphological trends as well as behavioural peculiarities occurring in the carni- vorous Uropodina hint to a transition towards parasitism. In fact, feed deficit can lead to parasitism in Uropodina. Based on synapomorphies, Ixodides and Uropodina are combined as Margotrichina n. cohors, Trigynaspina and Sejides as Antennophorina (n. comb.). Those two taxa form a monophyletic group whose sister group are the Gamasina PHYLOGENETISCHE METHODEN PRAEDISPOSITIONEN VERHALTEN NAHRUNG SYSTEMATIK KLADOGRAMM Z usammenfassung : Ixodides und Uropodina haben eine Reihe von Synapo- morphien gemeinsam, die sonst in keiner Guppe der Parasitiformes auftreten. Bei den karnivoren Uropodina treten sowohl anatomisch-morphologische Trends als auch Besonderheiten im Verhalten fr einen bergang zum Parasi- tismus auf. Bei Nahrungsmangel wird Parasitismus beobachtet. Auf der Basis von Synapomorphien werden Ixodides und Uropodina als Margotrichina n. cohors, Trigynaspina und Sejides als Antennophorina n. comb. zusammenge- fasst. Beide Taxa bilden eine monophyletische Gruppe, dessen Schwestergruppe die Gamasina sind. I ntroduction The groups of Parasitiformes Reuter were origi- nally carnivorous (E vans & T ill 1966, K arg 1993). Two groups of the Parasitiformes transitioned to a parasitic blood-sucking nutrition: the Ixodides Latreille and the Dermanyssoidea of Gamasina Leach, subgroup Eviphidides. All subgroups and spe- cies of the Ixodides (Ticks) feed in a parasitic manner. However, several subgroups of the Dermanyssoidea are free living in various soil layers and hunt other small edaphic animals. E vans & T ill (1966) docu- mented how free-living forms developed into specific parasitic forms. The Hypoaspididae of this group are exclusively carnivorous and live in soil. Laelapidae and Haemogamasidae which transitioned to parasi- tism, are partially found free-living in soil or in nests of their hosts (K arg 1993). The Dermanyssidae, Macronyssidae, Myonyssidae, Hirstionyssidae and Rhinonyssidae, however, are obligatory haematopha- gous (E vans & T ill 1966). The group of Ixodides takes an isolated position within the Parasitiformes. Even phylogenetic DNA analyses could not demonstrate a closer relationship 1. Hohe Kiefer 152, 14532 Kleinmachnow, Germany 2. Department of Molecular Bioscience and Bioengineering and Department of Medicine, University of Hawaii, USA Acarologia , 2008, XLVIII, 3-4 : 123-134. F ig. 1: Chelicerae of Uropodina (a, b) and Ixodides (c,d), a . Trichouropodella Hirschmann et Zirngiebl-Nicol. b . Trachyuropoda Berlese....
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 2114 taught by Professor Gd during the Spring '10 term at Georgia Southern University .

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