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deney 1 - 1 INTRODUCTION The objective of this experiment...

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1. INTRODUCTION The objective of this experiment is to determine the differential pressure drop along a special rough pipe by the changes in flow rate, regulate of a flow nozzle, an orifice meter, a pitot tube and a rotameter, and to plot friction factor versus Reynolds Number. Flowing systems require energy, which are provided by pumps and compressors, to produce a pressure difference as the driving force, and flow meter should introduce a small flow resistance . Thus, in a differential pressure drop flow meter the flow is calculated by measuring the pressure drop over an inserted in the flow. The differential pressure flow meter is based on the Bernoulli’s Equation, where the pressure drop and the further measured signal is a function of the square flow speed. Bernoulli’s equation: + + Ρ = + Ρ f v g g v g g 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 ρ ρ (1.1) Flow rate: ) / 1 ( ) ( 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 A A P P YA C V A F meter - - = = ρ (1.2) 1.1.1 FLOW NOZZLE Nozzle meter is device which is used to determine flow rate and measure local velocity. There is a plate inside the pipe, namely bended plate which has a hole at the center. The flow of fluids is restricted by this plate. Moreover, velocity of fluid increases due to narrowing cross section area. As velocity increases, pressure decreases. Pressure drop between the locations upstream pipe diameter and downstream pipe diameter is measured by manometer. Flow rate can be calculated by pressure drop and cross section area. There is a slight vena contract and less separated flow occurs, because narrowing in nozzle meter is not severe as orifice meter. Nozzle meter is more close to ideal situation than orifice meter.
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