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resultss - RESULTS In this experiment objective is to find...

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RESULTS In this experiment, objective is to find viscosities of glycerol solutions at different concentrations and at different temperatures by using three different methods. These methods are Capillary Flow Method (The Ostwald-Fenske Viscometer), Falling Ball Method (Hoeppler), and Rotating Shaft Viscometer (HAAKE). A Sample calculation for each subsection is found in Appendix-A. 3.1 Determination of Viscosity by Capillary Flow Method 3.1.1 Determination of Viscometer Constant ‘A’ In this method, viscosity of solution is measured by using the time that takes for the flow of a given volume liquid under the influence of gravity. For the calculation of viscosity, it is started from Hagen Poiseuille equation and Equation 3.1 and Equation 3.2 are obtained. ( 29 L P r dt dV μ π 8 ) . . 4 = (3.1) ( 29 t VL P r . 8 ) . . 4 = π μ (3.2) By putting ΔP= hρg in equation 3.2, Equation 3.3 is obtained. Using this equation viscosities of the solutions are calculated. ( 29 t VL g h r . 8 . . . . 4 ρ π μ = = A.ρ.t and taking A; A= ( 29 VL g h r 8 . . . 4 π = constant for viscometer (3.3) For the calculation of constant A, pure water at 25°C, 43°C and 62°C are used in the capillary flow method. Times for the flow of pure water at three temperatures are given in Table 3.1. Table 3.1: Time Data for The Pure Water Flow at Three Different Temperatures BY Capillary Flow Method Pure Water t (s) t (s) t (s) t av (s) 25 °C 2.66 2.54 2.52 2.57 43 °C 1.57 1.44 1.84 1.62 62 °C 1.39 1.48 1.84 1.57
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On the other hand, literature values of viscosities and densities of pure water at 25°C, 43°C and 62°C are given in Table 3.2. Table 3.2 Viscosities and Densities of Pure Water at 25°C, 43°C and 62°C [1],[2] Viscosity(Pa.s) 25°C 43°C 62°C Pure Water 0.000895 0.000621 0.000451 Density (kg/m 3 ) 25°C 43°C 62°C Pure Water 997.08 991.04 982.16 By using Equation 3.3, the viscometer constant A is calculated for three temperatures and the results are shown in Table 3.3 Table 3.3: Viscometer Constants at 25°C, 43°C and 62°C in Capillary Flow Method A*10 7 25 °C 43 °C 62 °C Viscometer Constant 3.493 3.868 2.925 3.1.2
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