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10Targets - 10.1 pp192193 1 ( 2 95% a

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10.1  How have human activities affected the earth’s biodiversity?  pp 192-193 1. Humans have disturbed to some extent at least half and probably about 83%  of the earth’s land surface (excluding Antarctica and Greenland)  2. 95% of the virgin forest in the lower 48 states have been logged for lumber,  and to make room for agriculture, housing and industry 3. 98% of all tall-grass prairie in the Midwest and Great Plains has disappeared 4. 99% of California’s native grassland and 95% of its original redwood forests  are gone. Why Should We Care About Biodiversity - overall biodiversity has  value intrinsic value  – these components exist, regardless of their use to us instrumental value  – usefulness in the form of economic and ecological  services more than half of the world’s people depend on forests, rangelands,  croplands, and fisheries for their livelihoods the jobs of many others depends on the processing of food, paper,  textiles, and other resources forms of instrumental values use value  –  nonuse value  –  existence value  –  aesthetic value  –  bequest value  –  biodiversity helps  maintain structure and function of ecosystems control populations of pests and other species 78bbb6a4c9246ade8ede6bf53bad91714aae442d.doc page 1 / 16
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provides an options for nature to adapt to environmental change supplies us and other species with food & medicine 78bbb6a4c9246ade8ede6bf53bad91714aae442d.doc page 2 / 16
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10.2  How should forest resources be used, managed, and sustained  globally and in the United States?  pp 193-203 Types of Forests - Based on their age and structure 1. Old-growth forest:  an uncut or regenerated forest that has not been  seriously disturbed by human activities or natural disasters for at least  several hundred years 2. Second-growth forest:   a stand of trees resulting from natural secondary  ecological succession 3. Tree plantation  or  tree farm:  managed tract with uniformly aged trees of  one or two genetically uniform species that are harvested by clear-cutting  as soon as they become commercially valuable. 63% of the worlds forests are secondary-growth trees 22% are old-growth 5 % are tree plantations Russia, Canada, Brazil, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea have more  than 3/4 the old-growth forest China, Russia, the United States, India, and Japan have 2/3 of the  world’s tree plantations Governments own about 84% of the world’s remaining forests Extent of Deforestation o Original forest has been reduced by 50% over the past 8,000 years by  human activities o Estimated 22% loss since the beginning of the 20 th  century o
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