Nucleotides And Nucleic Acids

Nucleotides And - Chapter 10 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Essential Questions • What are the structures of the nucleotides • How are

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Essential Questions • What are the structures of the nucleotides? • How are nucleotides joined together to form nucleic acids? • How is information stored in nucleic acids? • What are the biological functions of nucleotides and nucleic acids? Information Transfer in Cells Figure 10.1 The fundamental process of information transfer in cells. DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA , ribonucleic acid, are made up of nitrogenous bases and sugars What Are the Structure and Chemistry of Nitrogenous Bases? Know the basic structures Purines – Adenine – Guanine Pyrimidines – Cytosine – Uracil – Thymine What Are the Structure and Chemistry of Nitrogenous Bases? Figure 10.2 (a) The pyrimidine ring system; by convention, atoms are numbered as indicated. (b) The purine ring system; atoms numbered as shown. Know the numbering system for pyrimidines and purines What Are the Structure and Chemistry of Nitrogenous Bases? Figure 10.3 The common pyrimidine bases – cytosine, uracil, and thymine Know the structures of C, U and T What Are the Structure and Chemistry of Nitrogenous Bases? Figure 10.4 The common purine bases – adenine and guanine. Know the structures of A and G The Properties of Pyrimidines and Purines • The aromaticity and electron-rich nature of pyrimidines and purines enable them to undergo keto-enol tautomerism • The keto tautomers of uracil, thymine, and guanine predominate at pH 7 • By contrast, the enol form of cytosine predominates at pH 7 • Protonation states of the nitrogens determines whether they can serve as H-bond donors or acceptors • Aromaticity also accounts for strong absorption of UV light The Properties of Pyrimidines and Purines Figure 10.8 The UV absorption spectra of the common ribonucleotides. The Properties of Pyrimidines and Purines Figure 10.8 The UV absorption spectra of the common ribonucleotides. What Are Nucleosides? Structures to Know • Nucleosides are compounds formed when a base is linked to a sugar via a glycosidic bond • The sugars are pentoses • D-ribose (in RNA) • 2-deoxy-D-ribose (in DNA) • The difference - 2'-OH vs 2'-H • This difference affects secondary structure and stability What Are Nucleosides?...
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2011 for the course BIOC 403 taught by Professor Greene during the Spring '11 term at South Carolina State University.

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Nucleotides And - Chapter 10 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids Essential Questions • What are the structures of the nucleotides • How are

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