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ch07 - Carbohydrates Chapter 7 Why study carbohydrates Fuel...

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1 Carbohydrates Chapter 7 Why study carbohydrates? Fuel source for most animals is carbohydrate (e.g. glucose) = fairly reduced form of carbon. Carbohydrates (saccharides) have empirical formula (CH 2 O) n Monosaccharides = single polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit (e.g. glucose)
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2 the trioses (simplest monosaccharides) aldose 7-1 ketose Stereoisomerism of monosaccharides 7-2
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3 monosaccharides are optically active: dextrorotatory (+52.7 degrees) may exist in 2 different isomeric forms: -D-glucose = +112.2 ° -D-glucose = +18.7 ° +52.7 ° Mutarotation: ~ 1/3 - and 2/3 -D-glucose p. 237 D-aldoses 2 4 = 16 stereoisomers of aldohexoses
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4 D-ketoses p. 237 ketotetrose ketopentose ketohexose ketotriose 7-6 Nucleophilic attack creates “hemi - acetal”
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5 7-5 7-6 Anomeric carbon anomers Reducing sugar
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The ability of the free aldehyde to be oxidized, while something else is reduced, is the basis for most sugar tests. This is the
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ch07 - Carbohydrates Chapter 7 Why study carbohydrates Fuel...

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