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Unformatted text preview: Bioenergetics and Biochemical Reaction Types S-142 1. Entropy Changes during Egg Development Consider a system consisting of an egg in an incuba- tor. The white and yolk of the egg contain proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. If fertilized, the egg is transformed from a single cell to a complex organism. Discuss this irreversible process in terms of the entropy changes in the system, surroundings, and universe. Be sure that you first clearly define the system and surroundings. Answer Consider the developing chick as the system. The nutrients, egg shell, and outside world are the surroundings. Transformation of the single cell into a chick drastically reduces the entropy of the system (increases the order). Initially, the parts of the egg outside the em- bryo (within the surroundings) contain complex fuel molecules (a low-entropy condition). During incubation, some of these complex molecules are converted to large numbers of CO 2 and H 2 O molecules (high entropy). This increase in entropy of the surroundings is larger than the decrease in entropy of the chick (the system). Thus, the entropy of the universe (the system surroundings) increases. 2. Calculation of G from an Equilibrium Constant Calculate the standard free-energy change for each of the following metabolically important enzyme-catalyzed reactions, using the equilibrium constants given for the reactions at 25 C and pH 7.0....
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This note was uploaded on 05/01/2011 for the course CH 53890 taught by Professor Raymonds during the Spring '09 term at University of Texas at Austin.
- Spring '09