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CHAPTER 2 - ThreetypesofNeurons Afferentneurons...

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Chapter 2 Biology and Behavior neurons and Neurotransmitters   Neurons are specialized cells that conduct impulses through the nervous system Three types of Neurons Afferent neurons Relay information from the senses to the brain and spinal cord (the five-senses) Efferent Neurons Send information from the central nervous system to the glands and muscles (movement) Inter-neurons Carry information between the neurons What are the functions of the various body parts of the neuron? Cell body Carries out life sustaining functions Dendrites Receives signals from other neurons Axon Sends signals to other neurons, muscles, and glands  Synapse Junction between neurons How are messages transmitted through the nervous system? Resting potential Slight negative electrical potential of the axon membrane of a neuron at rest  Action potential Sudden reversal of the resting potential, which initiates the firing of a neuron “All or none” law A neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all Refractory period Short resting period after firing during which a neuron cannot fire again Speed of An action potential  Is influenced by the  mylenin sheath  white, fatty coating on some axons making action potential travel up to 100 times faster nodes of ranvier gaps in the myelin sheath what are neurotransmitters? Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that transmit messages between neurons
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released into synapse by axon terminals of sending neuron bind to receptor sites on dendrites of receiving neuron taken back into axon terminal by the process of reuptake.
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