CHAPTER 9 - June 24, 2009 Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion...

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June 24, 2009 Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion Explaining Motivation Motivation is all the processes that initiate, direct and sustain behavior. Motive is the need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal. How do the three components of motivation work together to influence behavior? Activation -Taking the first steps toward a goal. Persistence -Continuing to work toward a goal despite encountering obstacles. Intensity -The energy and attention applied to achieve a goal. What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation? Intrinsic motivation o Desire to perform an act because it is satisfying or pleasurable in and of itself Ex. A child reads a book because it is fun. Extrinsic motivation o Desire to perform an act to gain an external reward or avoid an undesirable consequence. Ex. A child reads a book to avoid losing TV privileges.
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How do drive-reduction and arousal theory explain motivation? In many species, behavior is motivated by instincts o Fixed behavior patterns characteristic of ever member of a species Ex. Spiders spinning webs, birds migrating No true instincts that motivate human behavior But, biological forces underlie some human behavior According to Clark Hull, a biological need creates an unpleasant internal state, called a drive , and the person or organism is motivated to reduce it o Ex. Need for food causes hunger, motivates food seeking to reduce the drive Drive theory is based on the concept of homeostasis Natural tendency of the body to maintain a balanced internal state. PAGE 291 DRIVE-REDUCTION THOERY How do drive reduction and arousal theory explain motivation? People are motivated to maintain an optimal level of arousal o A state of alertness and mental and physical activation In contrast to drive reduction theory, and arousal theory proposes that humans and other animals are sometimes motivated to increase tension
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CHAPTER 9 - June 24, 2009 Chapter 9 Motivation and Emotion...

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