CANCER_2011 - is the diagnosis (symptoms) and the (outcome;...

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e volped by Robert Koch; it is a small semi-solid gel is the diagnosis (symptoms) and the (outcome; good, bad, fair) prognosis ? cm; has not spread EATMENTS : emo 2. Radiation 3. Surgery mpty to the outside, enter from outside J AN 24 HUMAN PERSPECTIVES ON MICROBIOLOGY 1. The activities of all microbes are essential to all living things 2. Bacteria “fix” nitrogen plants 3. Microbes replenish our oxygen 4. Degrade organic waste and toxic pollutants 5. Make things- foods- cheese, bread, yogurt, beer, wine, antibiotics 6. Genomics study and analysis of the nucleotide sequences of DNA 7. Medical micro “Old world” Disease : polio, black plague- pneumonic and bubonic, T.B. Emerging Disease malaria, west Nile, Ebola virus, AIDS, lyme, legionnaire’s VIROIDS - 1/10 the size of a virus (.2um) - Cause plant disease - A short strand of RNA surrounded by a protein PRION (protein-only infectious part) They can be inherited It is a short piece of protein Cause neurodegenerative disease- madcow, scrapie, Kuru, parkinsons, alzheimers They can remain alive in the persons remains 2-3 years, post mortem Prions can be absorbed directly through a surgeons gloves Milestones in Micro
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1665 Robert Hooke- coined the “cell” 1796 Edward Jenner 1 st vaccination 1864 Louis Pasteur pasteurization 1884 Christian Gram gramstain 1908 Paul Ehrlich chemotherapy- cure for syphilis (Nobel Prize) Sahachrio Hata lab worker for Ehrlich- found the cure for syphilis- arsenic 1929 sir Alexander Fleming- mold penicillium - made penicillin- Norman Heatley- who did the synthesis of penicillin NOBEL PRIZE 1944 Lederberg & Tatum DNA from one bacterium can be transferred to another bacterium- transduction 1948 Barbra McClintock (Birds fav) transposons (“jumping gene”) 1988- NOBEL PRIZE 1953 James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins double helix structure of DNA Rosalind Franklin x-ray diffraction 1975 Bishop & Varmus oncogenes pre-cursor cells that can become cancer 1976 Montagnier & Gallo causative agent of AIDS is HIV 2003 human genome was mapped JAN 31, 2011 MICROSCOPY Meter(m)= 39.37” Millimeter (mm) = 1/1000 m; amphibian embryo Micron (um) = 1/1000000 m; bacteria, cell organelles Nanometer (nm) = 1/1000000000 m; virus; DNA; atom 2 MICROSCOPES
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LIGHT MICROSCOPE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE 1. Use light for illumination 1. Use electron for illumination 2. Use lenses for magnification 2. Use electro-magnification for magnification 3. Use live specimens 3. Must be dead 4. Fairly cheap $50-250,000 4. $ 1 million- 3.5 million Stains 1. Basic dyes stain the negatively-charged parts of cells (protein, nucleic acids) Ex : crystal violet, malachite green, safrain, methylene blue 2. Acidic dyes stains the background like a photographic negative Ex : india ink, nigrosin MOST IMPORTANT STEPS IN STAINING SIMPLE STAIN 1. Take a drop of liquid w/ the microbe in it and place it on a glass slide. Let it air dry. Result is called a smear 2. Pass the slide through a flame, 3 times. This is called “fixing”
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3. Flood the smear w/ methylene blue. Rinse with water at 45 degree angle. Let
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CANCER_2011 - is the diagnosis (symptoms) and the (outcome;...

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