Kristin Mangrum_Test Questions

Kristin Mangrum_Test Questions - Kristin Mangrum Chapter 18...

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Kristin Mangrum Chapter 18 Questions A&P 8.) ADH or Antidiuretic hormone is produced by the posterior pituitary. It is secreted from the posterior pituitary and has a target tissue of primarily kidney tubules, which are the sites of urine in the kidneys. 9.) When ADH levels increase, urine volume is going to decrease. The blood volume is going to decrease and the osmolarity of the blood is going to increase, even though the changes in blood osmolarity influence ADH secretion. 11.) Oxytocin is synthesized by neurosecretory neuron cell bodies in the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. It is transported through axons to the posterior pituitary where it is stored. It is secreted from the axon terminals in the posterior pituitary. The target tissues of Oxytocin include the uterus and mammary glands. 12.) Oxytocin stimulates smooth cell muscles of the uterus, and this plays an important role in the expulsion of the fetus during delivery by stimulation uterine smooth muscle contractions. It will also cause contractions in non-pregnant women during mensus and sexual intercourse. Oxytocin is also responsible for milk ejection in lactating females by promoting the contraction of smooth-muscle-like cells surrounding the alveoli of the mammary glands. Also, Oxytocin is associated with maternal nurturing and bonding. Little is known about the specific effects Oxytocin has on males but its suggested that it promotes sperm movement during ejaculation and pair bonding. The secretion of Oxytocin is stimulated by the stretching of the uterus, mechanical stimulation of the cervix, and stimulation of the nipples of the breast when a baby nurses. 15.) GH binds directly to membrane-bound receptors on target cells, such as an adipose call, to produce responses. These direct effects of GH cause increased breakdown of lipids and the decreased use of glucose as an energy source. GH can have an indirect effect on a tissue; it increases the production of a number of polypeptides, primarily by the liver but also by skeletal muscles and other tissue. 17.) Several pathological conditions are associated with abnormal GH secretion. Chronic hypersecretion, or excessive secretion, of GH leads to disorders they depend on if the hypersecretion occurs before or after complete ossification of the epiphyseal in the skeletal system. Before the epiphyseal plates have ossified causes exaggerated and prolonged growth in long bones, a condition called gigantism. Some individuals affected have grown to be 8 feet or more. In some adults chronically elevated GH levels result in Acromegaly, no height increase occurs because the epiphyseal plates have ossified but the condition
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