8B - 22_Nuclear energy_11.ppt

8B - 22_Nuclear energy_11.ppt - Other Nuclear Properties...

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Other Nuclear Properties Nuclear Magnetic Moments (NMR) Energy from Fission and Fusion
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Nuclides and isotopes Z = atomic number = number of protons = # of electrons in neutral atom; determines chemical element. N = neutron number A = mass number = Z + N Nuclide refers to a specific specie of nucleus. Nuclides with the same atomic number Z but different neutron numbers N are called isotopes of one another. (The element gold has 32 isotopes, ranging from 173 Au to 204 Au. Only one of them ( 197 Au) is stable; the remaining 31 are radioactive.) Such radionuclides undergo spontaneous decay (or disintegration ) by emitting a particle and becoming a different nuclide in a time half life. Ratio Z/N decreases as Z increases (more n than p)
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Some nuclei have spin and magnetic moments For example, the nuclei of H (protons) have spin angular momentum = (1/2) h/2 π = h’/2 and a magnetic moment = μ H = γ eh’/2m p . ( γ depends on the nucleus; for protons γ = 2.7.) In an applied magnetic field, this has energy levels. If EM radiation of frequency f at this energy = hf is sent in, one gets resonant absorption. This is Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). It is the basis of MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).
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Demo - Resonance
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Rules for nuclear reactions 1) The number of n + p is conserved. 2) The electric charge is conserved. 3) Emission of a β converts a n to a p (increases Z, decreases N, A is same). 4) Emission of
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This note was uploaded on 05/02/2011 for the course PHYS 8B taught by Professor Catherinebordel during the Spring '10 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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8B - 22_Nuclear energy_11.ppt - Other Nuclear Properties...

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